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The holes in the paper, Loftus says, laughing nervously as she recalls the events, were made on the firing range. We think of that sanctum as a citadel invulnerable to outside pressures.
Loftus tells us that, to the contrary, it is a marshland crisscrossed with paths, instantly imprinted by the footprints of all those who traverse it.
Beth Loftus grew up in a house on Santa Monica Boulevard. Recently, three decades into her influential career as a research psychologist and memory expert in legal cases, Loftus, in her early 50s and recently divorced, returned to Southern California after several years at the University of Washington in Seattle.
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A framed panoramic oil painting of the earlyth-century wooden house overlooking Lake Washington in which she lived until hangs on her hallway wall, copied from a photograph by a man she believes to be wrongfully imprisoned and whose cause she has championed. Somewhat ironically, her return was a side effect of research work investigating the veracity behind the allegations at the heart of a high-profile Jane Doe child-abuse case.
For the past many months, Loftus, who herself has served as an expert witness in over cases sincehas been preparing to go to trial. If she loses, not only will academic freedom have arguably suffered a grievous blow, but on a personal level, Loftus herself could face bankruptcy.
In earlyLoftus gave a lecture in Hollywood, at the Center for Inquiry West, a venue run by the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims for the Paranormal CSICOP that specializes in casting skeptical eyes over discussions about paranormal, and otherwise scientifically dubious, or unprovable, happenings: UFO sightings, alien abductions, crop circles, that sort of thing.
Loftus told her audience about a case she had continue reading investigated, a famous Jane Doe case, in which a messy divorce and child-custody battle had ended with the biological mother being accused, by her 6-year-old daughter, of having sexually abused Written Manipulation For Late Homework earlier in her life.
At that point, the year-old suddenly recalled detailed abuse episodes. It was provocatively titled Who Abused Jane Doe? The Hazards of the Single Case History.
Commenting on a Queensland Police Service post on Facebook, she claimed Tuesday's incident wasn't a one-off. Another park-goer Jesse Lovett said he rode the ride earlier with his two-year-old daughter on his lap and was concerned about the velcro strap which was ineffective, he claimed. Watching on in horror as disaster struck the raft containing Ms Goodchild, their daughter Ebony, 12, and four other people, was flipped over, Mr Turner instantly ran to rescue his wife.
Now, in earlyshe was speaking before an audience at the Center, reiterating some of these oil-thrown-on-fire conclusions. Doe, by then a lieutenant in the U. Yet increasingly memory experts such as Loftus have been proving that not only is memory unreliable, it can also be so utterly manipulated as to render it next-to-useless as pivotal evidence in criminal cases.
Source challenges this reassuring assumption. Like Henry Fonda in Twelve Angry Menshe is a holdout against our willingness to equate an accusation with guilt and our tendency to damn people on hearsay rather than genuine, verifiable evidence. Lacking any physical evidence, these cases hinge solely on the word of the alleged victim, their legal viability read more entirely on the willingness of prosecutors, judge and jury to accept the allegations at face value.
And that, during such hysterias, finger-pointing by those who really have been victimized is enough to convict the innocent and guilty alike, while, at the same time, finger-pointing by those who have never been victimized is also enough to doom the accused. Suffused with Written Manipulation For Late Homework sense of history, Loftus is haunted by the Written Manipulation For Late Homework of the Salem witch trials from over three centuries ago.
But, after hesitating a while, she begins to explain. It turns out that Loftus herself recalls being sexually molested by a family acquaintance when she was a young girl. I always remembered it. The first person I told was my former husband, when I was in my 20s.
It was definitely sort of embarrassing. Instead, throughout her childhood, the memories kept resurfacing, sometimes in bizarre ways.
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FMSF, on whose scientific and professional advisory board Loftus sits, was founded in to provide advice to those accused in repressed-memory cases. These were families with good relationships.
Therapists used hypnosis, sodium amenthol, guided this web page, dream interpretation, relaxation exercises. These are very dangerous techniques to use if undertaken in the expectation you can excavate historically accurate memories. Back in Southern California, a year-old onetime marriage, family and child counselor, who asked that her name not be used, explained how, in the late s, her thenyear-old daughter entered therapy and began recalling images that started with a memory of her mother inserting scissors into her vagina and gradually built up to a point at which she decided her parents were Satanists who had killed and eaten babies in her presence.
Nobody was ever charged in the case, but the family in question was, naturally, completely devastated. Others were not so lucky. In her books click here repressed-memory this web page, Loftus details the experiences of many individuals who were charged with sexually abusing their children, solely on the basis of recovered-memory testimony. But others have responded with the kind of venom rarely Written Manipulation For Late Homework within the confines of academia.
A quick Google search reveals hostile Internet correspondence, angry radio-show transcripts and high-octane commentary issuing against Loftus from around the world. And then, of course, there are the Written Manipulation For Late Homework death threats.
While she made a name for herself as a memory expert defending those she believed to be wrongly accused, her work increasingly highlights the rough edges of memory in a host of different situations. These cases include the celebrated McMartin and Dale Akiki kiddie-abuse cases from the s, in which allegations of day-care providers systematically abusing their young charges led to a national panic about youngsters being ritualistically abused by those hired to care for them, and the Holly Ramona case, which spawned a generation of repressed-memory allegations.
Simpson and Rodney King cases in L. More recently, Loftus has served as a behind-the-scenes consultant in some of the church-abuse sagas around the country, trying to work out which allegations have merit and which are coattails claims. Look carefully, and Loftus also appears as a consultant for the defense in the federal trial of Texas Tech professor Thomas Butler, a bioterrorism and bubonic-plague expert. He was accused of illegally importing vials of plague from Africa, contacting the FBI after several dozen vials went missing, and then, after three days of interrogation, admitting that, while he had no memory of the events, he might have accidentally destroyed the vials himself.
Loftus argued that even an absent-minded and aging professor would remember if he had destroyed such an integral part of his Written Manipulation For Late Homework work. In the end, the jurors agreed, and acquitted the year-old Butler on the most serious charges. One student even managed to generate a series of false memories in her research subjects about being licked on Written Manipulation For Late Homework ear by a Pluto character while visiting Disneyland decades earlier. The purpose of these mind games is to show that even the most vivid memory is not necessarily an accurate representation of past reality.
Among the more bizarre examples of the tricks memory can play is the rash of vivid alien-abduction stories that has intrigued scientists and ufologists for several decades.
While some experts accept at face value stories of men and women being removed from their beds in the middle of the night, taken aboard spaceships, being experimented upon and even made to have sexual intercourse with alien beings, most memory specialists have a somewhat different explanation. Harvard experimental-psychopathology professor Richard McNally, for visit web page, has run two studies on alien abductees. Like many of the people in the sexual-abuse cases, most of the alien abductees McNally interviewed did not actually remember, at the time of awakening from their hypnopompic episode, that they had been abducted.
In a different cultural context, the same individuals would likely have recalled being visited by witches, ghosts or Satan. Written Manipulation For Late Homework have successfully signed up for your Written Manipulation For Late Homework newsletter s - please keep an eye on your mailbox, we're movin' in! The venom in the clinical world to Beth is in direct relation to how defensive she makes them feel. Beth is questioning some of the basic principles on which people are earning their livelihoods.
Now, Loftus is getting ready to defend herself in court. Like many of the cases in which she has testified over the decades, Taus v. Loftus has the potential to once again remake the ground rules in the memory wars. Or sign in with a social account: If you like this story, consider signing up for our email newsletters. All-access pass to the top stories, events and offers around town. No Thanks Sign Up. Pushes Back Against Gentrification.
Fighting the memory war.