One of my readers in particular has helped enormously.
I wish I could credit this person by name to express my gratitude, but, for reasons I fully understand, I am not permitted to. Putting this together with information in my previous posts, I think we can come to some conclusions about what it is that Dr.
Burzynski is really doing. In the first part of this seriesI pointed out that back in the s Dr. Burzynski has been synthesizing them in a chemistry lab rather than isolating them from urine, as he had done before. In retrospect, that might have been a mistake. So what are antineoplastons? ByBurzynski said he was using eight antineoplastons to treat cancer patients.
The first five, which were fractions from human urine, he called A-1 through A From A-2 he made A, which was insoluble 3-N-phenylacetylamino piperidine 2,6-dione. He said A was the anticancer peptide common to all his urine fractions. He then treated A with alkali, which yielded a soluble product he named AS Further treatment of AS PA is detoxified in the liver to phenylacetyl glutamine PAGwhich is excreted in the urine.
Normally there is no PAPD in human urine. But doing this does not create a soluble form of A If you peruse ClinicalTrials. Why does this matter? PA and PAG are not sodium phenylbutyrate! The combination contains drugs which have synergistic activity which permits reduction of doses. The combination proven ineffective by prior data, is not used.
Antineoplastons and their prodrug, phenyl butyrate, are important ingredients of the combination because they cover the spectrum of approximately genes.
Two articles in peer reviewed journals have been published by our group recently and are attached. However, what caught my eye was the statement that phenylbutyrate is a prodrug for these antineoplastons.
For those who are not familiar with basic pharmacology, a prodrug is a drug that is metabolized into something else, and it is that something else that is the actual active molecule that produces a therapeutic effect.
In other words, a prodrug must undergo a chemical conversion in the body before it is active. It is also interesting to note that the complaint against Dr.
Please click for source from the Texas Medical Board also mentions phenylbutyrate:. One of the papers that Ms. Trimble sent to me also features sodium phenylbutyrate. Sodium phenylbutyrate PB is an FDA-approved drug for urea cycle disorders, and it is also indicated for the treatment of primary and recurrent glioma and acute promyelocytic leukemia [5,6].
PB is partially metabolized in the human body into phenylacetate PN . Both PB and PN have been extensively studied for their effect on neuroblastoma . Integration of PB into ne- uroblastoma therapy has been highly recommended . Previous studies reveal that PB has cytotoxic effect on human neuroblastoma, and that it can be combined with cisplatin in novel chemotherapy regimens .
New publications recommend the use of such FDA-approved drugs for the treatment of neuroblastoma [10,11].
Over the last couple of weeks, I’ve been spending a lot of time (and, characteristically, verbiage) analyzing the phenomenon known as Dr. Stanislaw Burzynski, his. Sports journalists and bloggers covering NFL, MLB, NBA, NHL, MMA, college football and basketball, NASCAR, fantasy sports and more. News, photos, mock drafts, game. Some people are fans of the Tampa Bay Bucs. But many, many more people are NOT fans of the Tampa Bay Bucs. This Deadspin NFL team preview is for those in the. The “Titties”—and “Titlelost” gear, which doesn’t seem to be for sale anymore—hats are a clear knockoff of the Titleist logo. But Bloomberg’s Polly.
And there you have it. Sodium phenylbutyrateit turns out, is a drug that was originally marketed as a treatment for urea cycle disorders. Source you might gather from the name of the Swedish company that makes it, it is an orphan drug. What that means is that it is a drug that was developed to treat a rare medical condition.
Essays - largest database of quality sample essays and research papers on Paragraph About Sports. A reader writes: I've never worn makeup in my life before, and I don't know anything about putting it on or wearing it or buying it. I've also never had a. Yes, I know that no one likes to hear it, but these are hard, cold facts. Michael Crichton said in , “The information society will be dominated by those who are. It's tempting to focus on perfection, especially if you want to become a better writer. But as you'll learn in this post, it's a bad way to get better. Young people who willingly or unwillingly go down this road have been dealt a bad hand. While speaking with a D.C. police officer after the incident, he explained.
It turns out that sodium phenylbutyrate potentially has several indications. There is, of course, the aforementioned treatment of urea cycle disorderswhich are inborn errors of metabolism. These clinical trials include trials testing phenylbutyrate in amyotropic lateral sclerosis i.
There are currently several trials listed on ClinicalTrials. Trials of sodium phenylbutyrate that do not list Dr. Burzynski as an investigator including trials of lung cancer, prostate cancer, metastatic solid tumors unresponsive to chemotherapy. Most of these trials are either completed or terminated, and some of them even have published results.
Of the 23 patients enrolled, 19 could be evaluated for tumor response. Fifteen patients were on enzyme-inducing anti-epileptic drugs. Of note, four of the six patients with CR or SD were on enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs. Nineteen of the 20 patients who could be evaluated for survival have died. The total number of person-years of follow-up was Median survival time was 5. If you look over the PubMed references, it turns out that researchers first examined phenylacetate as a potential treatment for cancer as far back asand there are some clinical trials still listed on ClinicalTrials.
This trial, however, only used phenylacetate in children with recurrent or progressive brain tumors. But why should sodium phenylbutyrate be suspected Write A Paragraph Professional Sport Has Doesn T Have The Right To Exist be a potential anticancer drug? It turns out that it inhibits an enzyme known as histone deacetylase.
The whole complex of DNA and its associated proteins is called chromatin. When DNA is wrapped around its histones, it is usually transcriptionally inactive or silent; i. In other words, chromatin that is more acetylated is generally more active in making its gene products and chromatin that is less acetylated is less active or even silent.
Indeed, Professional Expository Essay Editor Website Usa acetylation and deacetylation are major epigenetic mechanisms of controlling gene activity. It turns out that histone deacetylase HDAC inhibitors HDIs can have anticancer effects by inducing the accumulation of hyperacetylated chromatin, thus shutting down certain genes, and inhibiting the acetylation of other proteins that regulate gene expression.
No doubt this is the sort of rationale that leads Dr. Vorinostat and Romidepsin, both for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Several others are in the pipeline, from phase I to phase III clinical trials. One interesting take on phenylbutyrate as a cancer treatment can be found at, of all places, the website of an insurance company.
Tom Gayner: "The Evolution of a Value Investor"
Basically, Aetna has a policy regarding antineoplastons and phenylbutyrate which is worth considering. Insurance companies tend to be pretty conservative in deciding what therapies to cover; so the fact that Aetna will cover sodium phenylbutyrate for some indications, including at least one cancer, puts a rather fascinating spin on the issue that will become important later in this discussion.
At this point, the reader might click at this page tempted to ask whether Orac has gone off the deep end and become a Burzynski apologist. Burzynski might be, but unfortunately his possible quackery has intersected and contaminated real science. There is enough evidence out there the complete response in a glioma patient, for instance to suggest that there might—just might —be something to this approach. However, is it a magic bullet?
True, in all fairness, antineoplastons A and AS Burzynski often claims that very high doses are needed to be effective. Indeed, a key part of the collapse of his NCI trial in the s was due to Dr.
Even if he were correct, which he might have been, a drug that requires doses so high that it causes hypernatremia due to the sodium in its salt is rarely a particularly useful drug. In summary, phenylbutyrate exhibits saturable, nonlinear pharmacokinetics after intravenous administration and achieves peak concentrations in the range of in vitro tumor activity. Concentrations of the active, intermediate metabolite phenylacetate were low in this study and did not achieve levels at which saturation occurs.
We conclude that phenylbutyrate should not be considered a clinically useful prodrug of phenylacetate and that phenylbutyrate and phenylacetate should be pursued as independent antineoplastic agents.
In other words, Dr. The reason is that pharmacokinetic studies suggest that phenylbutyrate does not generate clinically useful concentrations of phenylacetate in the blood. Also in all fairness, in the publications of two trials of sodium phenylbutyrate that Ms. Trimble sent me, Dr. Burzynski is also adding sodium phenylbutyrate to a whole bunch of other drugs whose interactions with it have not been studied.
As much as I hate to admit it, there is a modicum of science here. Rather, they appear custom-designed so that Dr. Burzynski can keep administering antineoplastons which, remember, are nothing more than the metabolic breakdown products of sodium phenylbutyrate to patients. In other words, not only does Dr. So what exactly is Burzynski up to? Why, if sodium phenylbutyrate is available from not one, but two pharmaceutical companies as an orphan drug and the NCI and many other researchers are investigating it and were investigating phenylacetate before thatwould Dr.
Why does he sell so much Write A Paragraph Professional Sport Has Doesn T Have The Right To Exist, chemotherapy, as I have shown—along with cocktails of expensive targeted therapies which, although less toxic than cytotoxic chemotherapy, still carry risks, not to mention cost a lot of money?
Looking at the claims of the Texas Medical Board against Dr. This starts to become very important when you consider what price people will pay for hope. As I mentioned above, the insurance company Aetna has a policy outlining under what conditions and for what diseases it will cover sodium phenylbutyrate therapy.
In that policyit also states:. Since sodium phenylbutyrate has been approved by the FDA for treatment of other indications, physicians can prescribe it for patients without any danger of legal sanctions or need for compassionate use exemptions. However, there is no adequate evidence in the peer-reviewed published medical literature demonstrating that the use of sodium phenylbutyrate improves the clinical outcomes of patients with cancers of the just click for source, breast, or cancers other than acute promyelocytic leukemia and malignant glioma.
Current evidence is limited to in vitro and in vivo studies and Phase I studies.