Arawak men and women, naked, tawny, and full of Twelve Years A Slave Thesis, emerged from their villages onto the island's beaches and swam out to get a closer look at the strange big boat.
When Columbus and his sailors came ashore, carrying swords, speaking oddly, the Arawaks ran to greet them, brought them food, water, gifts. He later wrote of this in his visit web page. These Arawaks of the Bahama Islands were much like Indians on the mainland, who were remarkable European observers were to say again and again for their hospitality, their belief in sharing.
These traits did not stand out in the Europe of Twelve Years A Slave Thesis Renaissance, dominated as it was by the religion of popes, the government of kings, the frenzy for money that marked Western civilization and its first messenger to the Americas, Christopher Columbus.
The information that Columbus wanted most was: Where is the gold? He had persuaded the king and queen of Spain to finance an expedition to the lands, the wealth, he expected would be on the other side of the Atlantic-the Indies and Asia, gold and spices.
For, like other informed people of his time, he knew the world was round and he could sail west in order to get to the Far East.
Spain was recently unified, one of the new modern nation-states, like France, England, and Portugal.
Its population, mostly poor peasants, worked for the nobility, who were 2 percent of the population and owned 95 percent of the land. Spain had tied itself to the Catholic Church, expelled all the Jews, driven out the Moors. Like other states of the modern world, Spain sought gold, which was becoming the new mark of wealth, more useful than land because it could buy anything. There was gold in Asia, it was thought, and certainly silks and spices, for Marco Polo and others had brought back marvelous things from their overland expeditions centuries before.
Now that the Turks had conquered Constantinople and the eastern Mediterranean, and controlled the land routes to Asia, a sea route was needed. Portuguese sailors were working their way around the southern tip of Africa. Spain decided to gamble Twelve Years A Slave Thesis a long sail across an unknown ocean. In return for bringing back gold and spices, they promised Columbus 10 percent of the profits, governorship over Twelve Years A Slave Thesis lands, and the fame that would go with a new title: Admiral click the following article the Ocean Sea.
He was a merchant's clerk from the Italian city of Genoa, part-time weaver the son of a skilled weaverand expert sailor. He set out with three sailing ships, the largest of which was the Santa Mariaperhaps feet long, and thirty-nine crew members. Columbus would never have made it to Asia, which was thousands of miles farther away than he had calculated, imagining a smaller world. He would have been doomed by that great expanse of sea.
But he was lucky. One-fourth of the way there he came upon an unknown, uncharted land that lay between Europe and Asia-the Americas. It was early Octoberand thirty-three days since he and his crew had left the Canary Islands, off the Atlantic coast of Africa.
Now they saw branches and sticks floating in the water. They saw flocks of birds. These were signs of land. Then, on October 12, a sailor called Rodrigo saw the early morning moon shining on white sands, and cried out. It was an island in the Bahamas, the Caribbean sea. The first man to sight land was supposed to get a yearly pension of 10, maravedis for life, but Rodrigo never got it.
Columbus claimed he had seen a light the evening before. He got the reward. So, approaching land, they were met by the Arawak Indians, who swam out to greet them. The Twelve Years A Slave Thesis lived in village communes, had a developed agriculture of corn, yams, cassava.
They could spin and weave, but they had no this web page or work animals. They had no iron, but they wore tiny gold ornaments in their ears. This was to have enormous consequences: He then sailed to what is now Cuba, then to Hispaniola the island which today consists of Haiti and the Dominican Republic.
There, bits of visible gold in the rivers, and a gold mask presented to Columbus by a local Indian chief, led to wild visions of gold fields. On Hispaniola, out of timbers from the Santa Mariawhich had run aground, Columbus built a fort, the first European military base in the Western Hemisphere. He Twelve Years A Slave Thesis it Navidad Christmas and left thirty-nine crewmembers there, with instructions to find and store the gold.
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He took more Twelve Years A Slave Thesis prisoners and put them aboard his two remaining ships. At one Twelve Years A Slave Thesis of the island he got into a fight with Indians who refused to trade as many bows and arrows as he and his men wanted. Two were run through with swords and bled to death.
Then the Nina and the Pinta set sail for the Azores and Spain. When the weather turned cold, the Indian prisoners began to die. Columbus's report to the Court in Madrid was extravagant. He insisted he had reached Asia it was Cuba and an island off the coast of China Hispaniola. His descriptions were part fact, part fiction:. The Indians, Columbus reported, "are so naive and so just click for source with their possessions that no one who has not witnessed them would believe it.
When you ask for something they have, they never say no. To the contrary, they offer to share with anyone Because of Columbus's exaggerated report and promises, his second expedition was given seventeen ships and more than twelve hundred men. The aim was clear: They went from island read more island in the Caribbean, taking Indians as captives.
But as word spread of the Here intent they found more and more empty villages. On Haiti, they found that the sailors left behind at Fort Navidad had been killed in a battle with the Indians, after they had roamed the island in gangs looking for gold, taking women and children as slaves for sex and labor.
Now, from his base on Haiti, Columbus sent expedition after expedition into the interior. They found no gold fields, but had to fill up the ships returning to Spain with some kind of dividend. In the yearthey went on a great slave raid, rounded up fifteen hundred Arawak men, women, and children, put them in pens guarded by Spaniards and dogs, then picked the five hundred best specimens to load onto ships. Of those five hundred, two hundred died en route.
The rest arrived alive in Spain and were put up for sale by the archdeacon of the town, continue reading reported that, although the slaves were "naked as the day they were born," they showed "no more embarrassment than animals.
But too Twelve Years A Slave Thesis of the slaves died in captivity. And so Columbus, desperate to pay back dividends to those who had invested, had to make good his promise to fill the ships with gold. In the province of Cicao on Haiti, where he and his men imagined huge gold fields to exist, they ordered all persons fourteen years or older to collect a certain quantity of gold every three months. When they brought it, they were given copper tokens to hang around their necks.
Indians found without a copper token had their hands cut off and bled to death. The Indians had been given an impossible task.
The only gold around was bits of dust garnered from the streams. So they fled, were hunted down with dogs, and were killed. Trying to put together an army of resistance, the Arawaks faced Spaniards who had armor, muskets, Twelve Years A Slave Thesis, horses. When the Spaniards took prisoners they hanged them or burned them to death. Among the Arawaks, mass suicides began, with cassava poison.
Infants were killed to save them from the Spaniards. In two years, through murder, mutilation, or suicide, half of theIndians on Haiti were dead. When it became clear that there was no gold left, the Indians were taken as slave labor on huge estates, known later as encomiendas. They were worked at a ferocious pace, and died by the thousands. By the yearthere were perhaps fifty thousand Indians left.
Bythere were five hundred. A report of the year shows none of the original Arawaks or their descendants left on the island. The chief source-and, on many matters the only source-of information about what happened on the islands after Columbus came is Bartolome de las Casas, who, as a young priest, participated in the conquest of Cuba. For a time he owned a plantation on which Indian slaves worked, but he gave that up and became a vehement this web page of Spanish cruelty.
Las Casas transcribed Columbus's journal and, in his fifties, began a multivolume History of the Indies. In it, he describes the Indians.
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They are agile, he says, and can swim long distances, especially the women. They are not completely peaceful, because they do battle from time to time with other tribes, but their casualties seem small, and they fight when they are individually moved to more info so because of some grievance, not on the orders of captains or kings.
Women in Indian society were treated Twelve Years A Slave Thesis well as to startle the Spaniards. Las Casas describes sex relations:. The Indians, Las Casas says, have no religion, at least no temples. In Book Two of his History of the IndiesLas Casas who at first urged replacing Indians by black slaves, thinking they were stronger and would survive, but later relented when he saw the effects on blacks tells about the treatment of the Indians by the Spaniards.
It is a unique account and deserves to be quoted at length:. Twelve Years A Slave Thesis Casas tells how the Spaniards "grew more conceited every day" and after a while refused to walk any distance.
They "rode the backs of Indians if they were in a hurry" or were carried on hammocks by Indians running in relays. Total control led to total cruelty. The Spaniards "thought nothing of knifing Indians by tens and twenties and of cutting slices off them to test the sharpness of their blades. The Indians' attempts to defend themselves failed.
And when they ran off into the hills they were found and killed.