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There is a shortage of women in the higher ranks of many police organizations across the United States although it is relatively common for females and males to work together [1].

Law enforcement agencies continue underutilizing women despite the claim that employment of women in police organization is steadily increasing. This has made many gender activist groups to purport that the scarcity of women in the police profession results from ingrained biasness within this male subjugated profession. Does the under-representation of women clearly indicate a mindful decision in order for women to avoid the profession?

Nevertheless, some studies point out that lack of substantial mass of female employees undermine the capability of women to excel in law enforcement. The number of women in police profession has increased in the past two decades although the struggle by women police officers to be acknowledged by law enforcement agencies concurrently reflects the exacerbation women experience during the process of making their way into the labor force.

Female police officers continue experiencing discrimination and under-representation despite the fact that it is outlawed under the Supreme Constitution. Various studies have made conclusions that women have steadily acculturated into the police subculture while facing varying levels of discrimination and sexual harassment [2].

According to research findings, female police officers continue facing countless obstacles to full involvement in the police profession. As such, some professional and community groups have exerted massive pressure on police department to hire minority and women police officers. In light of this, the research discusses the discrimination against women in the police profession in the United States.

Inferior attitudes and gender stereotypes about women by men tend to constrain the ability of law enforcement agencies to recruit and retain qualified women [3].

This cause of discrimination against women in the police force stems the perception that police is a male-dominated profession.

According to a study conducted on female police officers, the occupational traditions exhibited masculine tone.

This study also indicated that despite women in the police profession having fulfilled all the academic and physical standards, they experience discrimination resulting from the stereotypic behavior of men [4].

According to another study, male police officers feel very demeaned and threatened because women perform like them. This exposes the masculine characteristic related to male police officers and the major role of men of protector [5].

Historically, the society has regarded the Tourism Essay Proofreading For Hire enforcement as the occupation of men and many men continue holding the extremely negative perception of women.

Women have constantly had a lower status occupationally than their male colleagues [6]. Indeed, the gap between men and women differs across cultures and time.

For example, in extremely traditional cultures, women play minor roles in the police force. On the other hand, women police officers in the modernized cultures play major roles in law enforcement. The United Click summed up this inequality in From a biblical perspective, according to scriptures God told Moses that a woman is worth 30 shekels while a man is worth 50 shekels [7].

From this perspective, one can conclude that current discrimination against women might have stemmed from this Biblical point of view. Reflecting back to time, men viewed women to be inferior to them. Despite changes in time, many people still uphold such beliefs that are continuing to affect the involvement of women in the law enforcement.

Apparently, discrimination against women and gender inequality is deeply embedded in law enforcement due to attitudes and expectations of the society. Another study also agrees that female police officers experience barriers when working in the male-dominated law enforcement area [8].

In agreement to this, the major barrier faced by women police officers is to overcome the negative attitudes of male police officers and breaking the invisible glass ceiling that hinders employment opportunities.

While male and female police officers might not exhibit varying levels of job Tourism Essay Proofreading For Hire, female officers tend to face both external and internal obstacles when trying to get job promotions through departmental ranks [9]. The internal obstacles include negative assessments from male supervisors or training officers and supervisory biases.

The supervisory biases frequently keep women officers out of high-status assignments. Many law enforcement agencies deny transfer to women officers to high-profile units such as gang units, SWAT and training. These agencies give women transfers into units such as child, abuse, community relations and domestic violence, which are stereotypically female units.

According to research findings, women police officers face unique forms of stress at workplace associated with the status of their subgroup and profanity sex jokes at workplace [10]. Indeed, while police officers have some common reasons for resignation from police duties, female police officers give discrimination as a cause for resignation.

In addition, tools structured to improve female integration into the police force ultimately have the outcome of raising segmentation or divisions and tensions in the workforce. As a result, women from minority communities tend to face higher levels of internal obstacles when compared to their counterparts from the majority.

External obstacles might include differences between work and family roles [11]. These roles involve balancing work-related duties and child-care duties. The society considers women to be the primary homemakers and primary caregivers in many households across the United Sates. This poses a burden of holding down occupational responsibilities and taking care of the home resulting in many obstacles, especially related to unpredictability and scheduling requirements of police occupation.

Many police departments in the US are not knowledgeable on how to treat female officers during their pregnancy period or after return to work. Another primary issue facing female police officers in some police departments is the absence of formal maternity leave policy. The contradictory way in which female police officers were treated resulted in some women doing some light Tourism Essay Proofreading For Hire desk jobs.

Other police department required female police officers Tourism Essay Proofreading For Hire continue with official job obligations such as patrolling up to their sixth month of pregnancy. Moreover, studies indicate that the conflict between work-family roles and child-care issues have affected job satisfaction and participation in the promotional process.

The poor performance resulting from these conflicts has made police departments to downgrade women and, thus, discriminate them from high-profile job positions. Various research have differed over the conflicts, since some claim that they outstanding issues for both male and female officers while some suggest that please click for source have significant effect on women officers.

Another cause of women discrimination is occupational norms, which simply imply that men and women are different; therefore, they should do different things [12]. Early researches and literatures show that women employed in traditional male occupations face discrimination and opposition during hiring the issue of assignments.

Despite the changes taking more info in the society, gender-related norms stand out dominant.

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According to another research, many women at workplace constantly are reminded of the stereotypes existing in the workplace. The current state of the world, where women are continuously trying to prove their abilities and worthy contributions to men worsens the issue of workplace discrimination.

Law enforcement ranks the highest among the male dominated to occupations [13]. Occupational behavior is another factor that contributes to the discrimination of women police officers [14]. According to some studies, socially agreed standards guide the occupational behavior.

The agreed standards guide the manner in which individuals enact gender within the large context of social structures. Gender emerges in interactions and is not a fixed characteristic of individuals. Women can either choose to accept subculture that embraces discrimination or stop pursuing a career in police occupation. Women who decide to accept how the society perceives them must choose to accept the assigned characteristics while on the job.

Discrimination against women in police force also results from nature of training academy [15]. The training of police officers requires men to have a higher level of strength and fitness than women.

Altering the standards because of gender issues will source women to adapt to the job making them different instead of relying on solidarity [16].

In addition, many police academies do not emphasize on interpersonal skills that are necessary in the daily work of a police officer. Male police officers tend to Tourism Essay Proofreading For Hire the interpersonal skills while women might not have them.

The myriad number of barriers faced by women upon entering the police profession is profound [17]. These obstacles originate from the structural aspects of the work organization and police profession. Women joining the police profession are disadvantaged because of their biological creation. The behavioral standards of the police culture set the tone for the negative involvement of women in law enforcement.

Women police officers need to deal with the daily stressors and cope up with the large amount of barriers and dilemmas. The vulnerabilities of women increase as they join law enforcement. Because women are joining a male-dominated occupation, discriminations are bound to take place. This is because of the vast population of men as compared to the number of female officers. According to studies, the major barrier that results in discrimination of women police officers is learn more here attitude of male co-coworkers.

This act outlaws employment discrimination because of color, religion, race, sex, or nationality. Nevertheless, the act does not precisely give a clear picture of the description of discrimination. In relation to sex discrimination at workplace, the goal of Title VII is to strike at the entire spectrum of women and men emanating from sexual stereotypes. This implies that in order to forbid all women from being police officers, law enforcement agencies must be capable of proving that no women do the police job [18].

The criminal justice system provides an opportunity to assess if police departments treat women and men variably based on their physical characteristics. The Supreme Court has also taken the initiative to ban women discrimination not only in the police workplace but also in other workplaces.

Tourism Essay Proofreading For Hire Supreme Court had refused to include gender discrimination women in the Equal Protection Clause prior to the s.

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Sexual harassment and discrimination are pervasive in many police departments. This is because commanders and supervisors tolerate and perpetrate these practices.

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The purpose of this group was to orchestrate a campaign of intimidation, ritual harassment and criminal activity against Tourism Essay Proofreading For Hire police officers. Many women have resorted to resign from carrying out police duties because of the unchecked, unpunished and unrelenting abuse in police department. Male police officers intimidate, harass and thwart women officers especially when they clinch top ranks in the management.

It is also not surprising that, women officers face both racial and gender discrimination. Some studies reported that both white and black female officers have faced discrimination because of their sex or race. In addition, many female officers strongly believe that they are victims of discrimination. According to study findings, 17 out of 27 female officers felt that their fellow male officers discriminated them.

Despite recent research and literature indicating some progress, female police officers feel discrimination in law enforcement agencies. Having increased their presence in law enforcement occupations, women are yet to be accepted in such male-dominated occupations. The greatest discrimination of female police officers originates from their fellow male officers.

The attitudes of men here easily deter women who wanted to pursue a career in law enforcement from doing so.

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Women police officers tend to face isolation and hostility from male police officers. As a result, the greatest obstacles to employing women in police patrol positions do not emanate from their performance, but originate from discrimination from male officers.