A doctorate from Latin docere"to teach" or doctor's degree from Latin doctor"teacher" or doctoral degree from the ancient formalism licentia docendi is an academic degree awarded by universities that is, in most countries, a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession.
There are a variety of doctoral degrees, with the most common being the Doctor of Philosophy PhDwhich is awarded in many different fields, ranging from the humanities to the scientific disciplines. In the United States and some other countries, there are also some types of vocational, technical, or professional degrees that are referred to as doctorates in their home countries, though they are not technically doctoral level as they are not research degrees and no defense of any dissertation or thesis is performed.
Health Promotion Education Research Methods Using The Five Chapter Thesis Dissertation Model
Internationally, however, the use of doctor to refer to these degrees is not universally accepted. Many universities also award honorary doctorates to individuals who have been deemed worthy of special recognition, either for scholarly work or for other contributions to the university or to society.
The term doctor derives from the Latin docere meaning "to teach". The right to grant a licentia docendi i. The Third Council of the Lateran of guaranteed the access—at that time largely free of charge—of all able applicants. Applicants were tested for aptitude. The right was granted by the pope to read article University of Paris in where it became a universal license to teach licentia ubiquie docendi.
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The so-called "professional, vocational, or technical curriculum" in contrast to liberal arts of the Middle Ages included only theologylawand medicine. The doctorate of philosophy developed in Germany in the 17th century likely c. The doctorate of philosophy adheres to this historic convention, even though the degrees are not always for the study of philosophy. Chris Park explains that it was not until formal education see more degree programs were standardized in the early 19th century that the doctorate of philosophy Thesis About Health Promotion reintroduced in Germany as a research degree,  abbreviated as Ph.
University doctoral training was a form of apprenticeship to Thesis About Health Promotion guild. The traditional term of study before new teachers were admitted to the guild of "Masters of Arts" was seven years, matching the apprenticeship term for other occupations.
Originally the terms "master" and "doctor" were synonymous, but over time the doctorate came to be regarded as a higher qualification than the master's degree.
Makdisi's revised hypothesis that the doctorate originated in the Islamic ijazaha reversal of his earlier view that saw both systems as of "the most fundamental difference",  was rejected by Huff as unsubstantiated. University degrees, including doctorates, Thesis About Health Promotion originally restricted to men.
The use and meaning of the doctorate has changed over time, and is subject to regional variations. For instance, until the early 20th century few academic staff or professors in English-speaking universities held doctorates, except for very senior scholars and those in holy orders.
After that time the German practice of requiring lecturers to have completed a research doctorate spread. Universities' shift to research-oriented based upon the scientific method, inquiry, and observation education increased the doctorates Thesis About Health Promotion.
Today, a research doctorate PhD or its equivalent as defined in the USA by the NSF is generally a prerequisite for an academic career, although many recipients do not work in academia.
Professional doctorates developed in the United States from the 19th century onward. The first professional doctorate to be offered in the United States was the M. The MD, as the standard qualifying degree in medicine, gave that profession the ability through the American Medical Associationestablished in for this purpose to set and raise standards for entry into professional practice.
The modern research degree, in the shape of the German-style Ph. In the UK, research doctorates initially took the form of higher doctorates, first introduced at Durham University in However here took a long time to be accepted, not replacing the Bachelor of Laws LLB until the s, by which time the LLB was generally taken as a graduate degree.
Notably, the curriculum for the JD and LLB were identical, with the degree being renamed as a doctorate, and it like the MD was not equivalent to the PhD, raising criticism that it was "not a 'true Doctorate'".
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The older-style doctorates, now usually called higher doctorates in the United Kingdom, take much longer to complete, since candidates must show themselves to be leading experts in their subjects. These doctorates are now less common in some countries and are often awarded honoris causa. The habilitation is still used for academic recruitment purposes in many countries within the EU, and involves Thesis About Health Promotion a new long thesis a second book or a portfolio of research publications.
The habilitation highest available degree demonstrates independent and thorough research, experience in teaching and lecturing, and, more recently, the ability to generate supportive funding. The habilitation follows the research doctorate, and in Germany it can be a requirement for appointment as a Privatdozent or professor. Since the Middle Agesthe number and types of doctorates awarded by universities has proliferated throughout the world. Practice varies from one country to another.
While a doctorate usually entitles one to be addressed as "doctor", use of the title varies widely, depending on the type and the associated occupation. Research doctorates are awarded in recognition of academic research that is publishable, at least in principle, in a peer-reviewed academic journal. The best-known research degree title, in the English-speaking worldis Doctor of Philosophy abbreviated Ph.
Other research doctorates include Thesis About Health Promotion Doctor of Education Ed. Criteria for research doctorates vary, but typically require Thesis About Health Promotion of a substantial body of original research, which may be presented as a single thesis or dissertation, or as a portfolio of shorter project reports thesis by publication.
The submitted dissertation is assessed by a committee of examiners, and is then typically defended by the candidate during an oral examination viva in the UK and India by the committee. Candidates may also be required to complete graduate-level courses in their field, as well as study research methodology. Criteria for admission to doctoral programs varies.
The time required to complete a research doctorate varies from three years, excluding undergraduate study, to six years or more. Licentiate degrees vary widely in their meaning, and Thesis About Health Promotion article source few countries are doctoral level qualifications. Sweden awards the licentiate degree as a two-year qualification at doctoral level and the doctoral degree PhD as a four-year qualification.
In Belgium, the licentiate was the basic university degree prior to the Bologna Process and was approximately equivalent to a bachelor's degree,   while in France and other countries it is the bachelor's-level qualification in the Bologna process.
A higher tier of research doctorates may be awarded on the basis of a formally submitted portfolio of published research of a particularly high standard. Examples include the Doctor of Science D.
The habilitation teaching qualification facultas docendi or "faculty to teach" under a university procedure with a thesis and an exam is commonly regarded as belonging to this category in GermanyAustriaFranceLinkSwitzerlandPolandetc. The degree developed in Germany in the 19th century "when holding a doctorate seemed no longer click at this page to guarantee a proficient transfer of knowledge to the next generation.
In many countries of Central and Eastern Europethe degree gives the venia legendiLatin for "permission for lecturing," or the ius docendi"right of teaching" a specific academic subject at universities for a lifetime. Higher doctorates are often also awarded honoris causa when a university wishes to formally recognize an individual's achievements and contributions to a particular field.
Doctor of Commerce and Doctor of Medicine can also be awarded at the higher doctorate level, usually called " Fellow ". Depending on the country, professional doctorates may either be research degrees at the same level as PhDs or professional degrees with little or no research content.
In the US, professional doctorates formally "doctor's degree — professional practice" in government classifications are degrees that require a minimum of six years of university-level study including any pre-professional bachelor's or associate degree and meet the academic requirements for professional licensure.
There is also a category of "doctor's degree — other" for doctorates that do not fall into either research or professional categories. All of these are considered doctoral degrees. In contrast to the US, many countries reserve the term "doctorate" for research degrees and if, as in Canada and Australia, professional degrees bear the name "Doctor of …", etc.
Professional and practice-based doctorates such as the EdD, DClinPsy, MD, DBA and EngD are full doctorates at the same level as the PhD in the national qualifications frameworks; they are not first professional degrees but are "often post-experience qualifications". When a university wishes to formally recognize an individual's contributions to a particular field or philanthropic efforts, it may choose to grant a doctoral degree honoris causa i.
In Argentina the doctorate doctorado  is the highest academic degree. The intention is that candidates produce original contributions in their field knowledge within a frame of academic excellence. It is reviewed by a Doctoral Committee composed of examiners external to the program and at least one examiner external to the institution. The degree is conferred after a click at this page dissertation defence. Doctoral candidates are normally required to have a Master's degree in a more info field.
Exceptions are based on their individual academic merit. A second and a third foreign language are other common requirements, although the requirements regarding proficiency commonly are not strict. The admissions process varies by institution. Some require candidates to take tests while others base admissions on a research proposal application and interview only. In both instances however, a faculty member must agree prior to admission to supervise the applicant. Requirements usually include satisfactory performance in advanced graduate courses, passing an Thesis About Health Promotion qualifying exam and submitting a thesis that must represent an original and relevant contribution to existing knowledge.
The thesis is examined in a final public oral exam administered by at least five faculty members, two of whom must be external. After completion, which normally consumes 4 years, the candidate is commonly awarded the degree of Doutor Doctor followed by the main area of specialization, e.
Physics, Chemistry, Biological and Life Sciences, etc. All graduate programs in Thesis About Health Promotion public universities are tuition-free mandated by the Brazilian constitution. Competition for graduate financial aid is intense and most scholarships support at most 2 years of Master's studies and 4 years of doctoral studies. The normal monthly stipend for doctoral students in Brazil is between and USD.
A degree of Doutor usually enables an individual to apply for a junior faculty position equivalent to a US Assistant Professor. Progression to full professorship known as Professor Titular requires that the candidate be successful in a competitive public exam and normally takes additional years. In the federal university system, doctors who are admitted as junior faculty members may progress usually by seniority to the rank of Associate Professor then become eligible to take the competitive exam for vacant full professorships.
In recent years somme initiatives as jointly supervised doctorates e. Denmark offers four levels of degrees: Bachelor of Arts degree ; 2 a five-year candidate's degree e. Doctor Philosophiaewhich is the higher doctorate. A three-year extended research program, leading to the magister's degree was phased out to meet the international standards of the Bologna Process.
In the disputation, the Thesis About Health Promotion defends their thesis against three official opponents as well as opponents from the auditorium ex auditorio. In Egypt, the highest degree doctorate is awarded by Al-Azhar University est.
The Medical doctorate abbreviated as M. It takes on average three to five years. Many postgraduate medical and surgical specialties students earn a Doctorate. After finishing a 6-year medical school and Thesis About Health Promotion internship house officerphysicians and surgeons earn the M.
They can then apply to here a master's degree or a speciality diploma, then an MD degree in a specialty. Geriatrics means a doctorate in Geriatricswhich is equivalent to a Ph.
The Finnish requirement for the entrance into doctoral studies is a master's degree or equivalent. All universities have the right to award doctorates.