There is now near-universal consensus that all individuals are entitled to certain basic rights under any circumstances.
These include certain civil liberties and political rights, the most fundamental of which is the right to life and physical safety. Human rights are the articulation of the need for justicetolerancemutual respect, and human dignity in all of our activity. To protect human rights is to ensure that people receive some degree of decent, humane treatment. To violate the most basic human rights, on the other hand, is to deny individuals their fundamental moral entitlements.
It is, in a sense, to treat them as if they are less than human and undeserving of respect and dignity. Examples are acts typically deemed "crimes against humanity," including genocidetorture, slavery, rape, enforced sterilization or medical experimentation, and deliberate starvation. Because these policies are sometimes implemented by governments, limiting the unrestrained power of the Sovereignty And Human Rights Essay is an important part of international law.
Underlying laws that prohibit the various "crimes against humanity" is the principle of nondiscrimination and the notion that certain basic read more apply universally. The number of deaths related to combat and the collateral damage caused by warfare are only a small part of the tremendous amount of suffering and devastation caused by conflicts.
Over the course of protracted conflict, assaults on political rights and the fundamental right to life are typically widespread.
Some of the gravest violations of the right to life are massacres, the starvation of entire populations, and genocide.
Genocide is commonly understood as the intentional extermination of a single ethnic, racial, Sovereignty And Human Rights Essay religious group.
Killing group members, causing them serious bodily or mental harm, imposing measures to prevent birth, or forcibly transferring children are all ways to bring about the destruction of a group. Genocide is often regarded as the most offensive crime against humanity. The term "war crime" refers to a violation of the rules of jus in bello justice in war by any individual, whether military or civilian. Women and girls are often raped by soldiers or forced into prostitution.
For a long time, the international community has failed to address the problem of sexual violence during armed conflict. Such crimes are motivated in part by the long-held view that women are the "spoils" of war to which soldiers are entitled. Trafficking in women is a form of sexual slavery in which women are transported across national borders and marketed for prostitution. These so-called "comfort women" are another example of institutionalized sexual violence against women during wartime.
Sexual violence is sometimes viewed as a way to destroy male and community pride or humiliate men who cannot "protect" their women. It is also used to silence women who are politically active, or simply inflict terror upon the population at large.
For example, during the s, the media reported that "rape Sovereignty And Human Rights Essay other sexual atrocities were a deliberate and systematic part of the Bosnian Serb campaign for victory in the war" in the former Yugoslavia.
Rather Sovereignty And Human Rights Essay simply check this out off whole populations, government forces may carry out programs of torture. Torture can be either physical or psychological, and aims at the "humiliation or annihilation of the dignity of the person.
Torture here used in some cases as a way to carry out interrogations and extract confessions or information. Today, it is increasingly used as a means of suppressing political and ideological dissent, or for punishing political opponents who do not share the ideology of the ruling group.
In addition to torture, tens of thousands of people detained in connection with conflicts "disappear" each year, and are usually killed and buried in secret. In most cases, interrogations involve threats and torture, and those who are arrested are subsequently killed. Various lesser forms of political oppression are often enacted as well. Individuals who pose a threat to those in power or do not share their political views may be arbitrarily imprisoned, and either never brought to trial or subject to grossly unfair trial procedures.
Mass groups of people may be denied the right to vote or excluded from all forms of political participation. Or, measures restricting people's freedom of movement may be enforced. These include forcible relocations, mass expulsions, and denials of the right to seek asylum or return to one's home.
Political oppression may also take the form of discrimination. When this occurs, basic rights may be denied on the basis of religion, ethnicity, race, or gender. Apartheid, which denies political rights on the basis of race, is perhaps one of the most severe forms of discrimination. The system of apartheid in South Africa institutionalized extreme racial segregation that involved laws against interracial marriage or sexual relations and Sovereignty And Human Rights Essay for the races to live Sovereignty And Human Rights Essay different territorial areas.
Certain individuals were held to be inferior by definition, and not regarded as full human beings under the law. In addition, women are uniquely vulnerable to certain types of human rights abuses -- in addition to the sexual abuse mentioned above, entrenched discrimination against women is prevalent in many parts of the world and leads to various forms of political and social oppression.
This includes strict dress codes and harsh punishments for sexual "transgressions," which impose severe limitations on women's basic liberties. In addition, women in some regions Africafor example suffer greater poverty than men and are denied political influence, education, and job training. Many have noted the strong interdependence between human rights violations and intractable conflict.
Abuse of human rights often leads to conflict, and conflict typically results in human rights violations. It is not surprising, then, that human rights abuses are often at the center of wars and that protection of human rights is central to conflict resolution. Violations of political and economic rights are the root causes of many crises. When rights to adequate food, housing, employment, and cultural life are denied, and large groups of people are excluded from the society's decision-making processes, there is likely to be great social unrest.
Such conditions often give rise to justice conflictsin which parties demand that their basic needs be met. Indeed, many conflicts are sparked or spread by violations of human rights. For example, massacres or torture may inflame hatred and strengthen an adversary's determination to continue fighting. Violations Sovereignty And Human Rights Essay also lead to further violence from the other side and can contribute to a conflict's spiraling out of control.
On the flip side, armed conflict often leads to the breakdown of infrastructure and civic institutions, which in turn undermines a broad range of rights. When hospitals and schools are closed, rights to adequate health and education are threatened. The collapse of economic infrastructure often results in pollution, food shortages, and overall poverty. The breakdown of government institutions results in denials of civil rights, including the rights to privacy, fair link, and freedom of movement.
In many cases, the government is increasingly militarized, and police and judicial systems are corrupted. Abductions, arbitrary arrests, detentions without trial, political executions, assassinations, and torture often follow. In cases where extreme violations of human rights have occurred, reconciliation and peacebuilding become much more difficult.
Unresolved human rights issues can serve as obstacles to peace negotiations. International humanitarian law has been enacted to preserve humanity in all circumstances, even during conflicts. Such law "creates areas of peace in the midst of conflict, imposes the link of a common humanity, and calls for dialogue. Various international committees are in place to monitor compliance with human rights standards and report any violations.
When breaches do occur, they are brought to the attention of international tribunals or tried in an international court or war crimes tribunal. But conflicts sometimes progress beyond the state Sovereignty And Human Rights Essay which international law can help. As the number of victims grows and more individuals are taken prisoner, tortured, or executed, it becomes more difficult to resort to the legal path. In addition, it is often difficult to "reconcile the safeguarding of human rights with conflict resolution.
In part this is due to the fact that while wars between states have diminished, wars within states have escalated. Many internal conflicts involve a surge in organized violence.
Ikenberry: Sovereignty vs. Human Rights
Genocide, crimes against humanity, and aggression against civilians have become a central part of warfare in these "internal" conflicts. The "outsiders" are dehumanized, making human rights violations such as severe discrimination or ethnic cleansing all the more psychologically feasible.
Thus, attacks on human rights are often at the very heart of these internal conflicts.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a milestone document in the history of human rights. AMERICAN TRIBAL SOVEREIGNTY Study Guide. SOVEREIGN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS: Pictured is the 21st century national American Indian tribal flag of the Kumeyaay-Digueño. However, these special rights can be permanently lost. And if lost, they die forever or become extinct and cannot be retrived, rehabilitated or reconstituted unless a. Free human rights violations papers, essays, and research papers.
In response, public authorities must regain control of organized violence. This means a re-establishment of the rule of law and a rebuilding of trust in public authorities. In addition, more inclusive, democratic values are needed to defuse exclusivist ideals.
These human rights norms are central to the maintenance of civil society, and necessary for grounding attitudes of tolerance and mutual respect within communities. Serious difficulties arise, however, when those in power are responsible for human rights violations.
In this case, outside intervention is necessary to stop the abuse. There is much disagreement about when and to what extent outside countries can engage in humanitarian intervention.
More specifically, there is debate about the efficacy of using military force to protect the human rights of individuals in other nations. This sort of debate stems largely from a tension between state sovereignty and the rights of individuals.
Some defend the principles of state sovereignty and nonintervention, and argue that other states must be permitted to determine their http://cocktail24.info/blog/essay-on-graffiti-art.php course. It is thought that states have diverse conceptions of justice, and international coexistence depends on a pluralist ethic whereby each state can Sovereignty And Human Rights Essay its own conception of the good.
Among many, there is "a profound skepticism about the possibilities of realizing notions of universal justice. In addition, requiring some country to respect human rights is liable to cause friction and can lead to far-reaching disagreements. Others think, "Only the vigilant eye of the international community can ensure the proper observance of international standards, in the interest not of one state or another but of the individuals themselves.
"The 'disappearances' of detainees in the custody of Russian federal forces in Chechnya is a major human rights crisis that the Russian government and the. When it comes to human rights, the issue of cultural relativism is widely discussed. Majority of the human rights literature encompasses the western and non-western. This essay has been submitted by a law student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. Universalism And Cultural Relativism In. The nature of sovereignty has changed from one which vests states with the right to non-intervention, to one which grants them certain responsibilities towards its. To find out more about E-IR essay awards, click here. In recent decades, a widely contested debate over the universality of human rights has emerged.
Certain rights are inalienable and universal, and "taking basic rights seriously means taking responsibility for their protection everywhere. In addition, it is thought that political systems that protect human rights reduce the threat of world conflict. Nevertheless, governments are often reluctant to commit military forces and resources to defend human rights in other states.
Lastly, there is a need to ensure that intervention is legitimate, and motivated by genuine humanitarian concerns. The purposes of intervention must be apolitical and disinterested. However, if risks and costs of intervention are high, it is unlikely that states will intervene unless their direct interests are involved.
Many note that in order to truly address human rights violations, we must strive to understand the underlying causes of these breaches.
These causes have to do with underdevelopment, economic pressures, various social problems, and international conditions. It is only by understanding and ameliorating these root causes and strengthening civil society see more we can truly protect human rights.
The Responsibility to Protect: International Development Research Centre, Sovereignty And Human Rights Essay, Temple University Press, Forced Disappearances, Torture, and Summary Executions.