He held several senior ministerial posts during this time, most notably those of Viceroy of India from to and of Foreign Secretary between and He is regarded as one of the architects of the policy of appeasement prior to World War IIalthough after the German occupation of Czechoslovakia in Marchhe was also one of those who pushed for a new policy of attempting to deter further German aggression by promising to go to war to defend Poland.
On Neville Chamberlain 's resignation early in MayHalifax effectively declined the position of Prime Minister despite widespread support across the political spectrum, as he felt that Winston Churchill would be a more suitable war leader Halifax's membership of the House of Lords was given as the official reason. A few weeks later, with the Allies facing apparently catastrophic defeat and British forces falling back to DunkirkHalifax favoured approaching Remilitarization Of The Rhineland Essay to see if acceptable peace terms could be negotiated, but was overruled by Churchill after a series of stormy meetings of the War Cabinet.
From tohe served as British Ambassador in Washington. His father was President of the English Church Unionwhich pushed for ecumenical reunion, in Remilitarization Of The Rhineland Essay,and — Between andWood's three older brothers died young, leaving him, at the age of nine, more info to his father's fortune and seat in the House of Lords.
The Iron Guard (Romanian: Garda de fier pronounced [ˈɡarda de ˈfjer] (listen)) is the name most commonly given to a far-right movement and political party in. Edward Frederick Lindley Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, KG, OM, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, TD, PC (16 April – 23 December ), styled Lord Irwin from until and. Rulers Index Sa Sá, Filipe Franco de (b. June 2, , Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. March 8, , Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil), foreign minister (), war.
His religiosity as a devout Anglo-Catholic like his father earned him the nickname, possibly coined by Churchill, of the "Holy Fox". He was born with an atrophied left arm and no left hand, which did not stop him from enjoying riding, hunting and shooting.
Wood's childhood was divided mainly between two houses in Yorkshire, Hickleton Hallnear Doncaster, and Garrowby. He was not happy at school as he was not talented either at sport or classics. He went up to Christ Church, Oxfordin October He took no part in student politics but blossomed academically, graduating with a first class degree in Modern History. Inhe returned to England for two years of study at All Souls. Wood had not stood in the general electionat which the Liberals won a landslide victory, choosing to devote his energies to his All Souls Fellowship.
By the political tides had turned enough for Wood to put himself forward for the Conservative candidacy at Ripon in Yorkshire, and he was easily selected through local influence. He remained Member of Parliament for Ripon until his elevation to the Lords in He was vigorously opposed to Welsh Disestablishment. He Remilitarization Of The Rhineland Essay a rare intervention in debate, urging that conscription be introduced immediately. He was sent to the front line in He rose to the rank of major.
More info was initially sympathetic to Lord Lansdowne 's proposal for a compromise peacebut ultimately demanded all-out victory and a punitive peace. Wood was unopposed in the general elections of, and He was a signatory to the April Lowther Petition calling for harsh peace terms against Germany in the Treaty of Versailles then being negotiated.
They urged the Conservative Party to concentrate on the welfare of the community rather than the good of the individual. With the Irish War of Independence then in progress Wood urged a federal solution. At this time he concentrated on housing and agriculture and Ireland.
In Mayhe accepted the Governor-Generalship of South Africabut the offer was withdrawn Remilitarization Of The Rhineland Essay the South African government announced that it wanted a Cabinet Minister or a member of the Royal Family.
In Aprilhe was appointed Under-Secretary for the Coloniesunder Churchill who was initially reluctant to meet him on one occasion he stormed into Churchill's office and told him that he "expected to be treated like a gentleman".
On 16 OctoberWood attended the meeting of the junior ministers who expressed disquiet check this out the Lloyd George Coalition. Click 19 Octoberhe voted at the Carlton Club meeting for the Conservatives to fight the next election as an independent force.
The Coalition ended and Bonar Law formed a purely Conservative government. Some saw this as an improvement in the moral character of the government. Austerity policies left no room for constructive policies. Wood, who spent two days hunting each week, was neither interested nor particularly effective in the job but saw it as a stepping stone to greater things. He was not happy about Stanley Baldwin 's adoption of tariffs in Decemberwhich saw the Conservatives lose their majority and give way to a minority Labour government.
When the Conservatives were returned to poweron 6 NovemberWood was appointed Minister for Agriculturea more onerous job than Education had been. He took an Agriculture and Tithes Bill through the Commons. He almost declined as he had two sons of school age and his aged father seemed unlikely to live until when his term was due to end. He accepted on the advice of his father who in the event lived to see him return. He was created Baron Irwin of Kirby Underdale.
He left for India on 17 March He arrived in Bombay on 1 April Irwin relished the pomp of the Viceroyalty. He was an able horseman, and stood 6' 5".
He had a "Cecilian stoop and sympathetic kindly eyes" and gave an impression of a Prince of the Church R. Bernays Naked Fakir Several attempts were made to assassinate him.
He was more sympathetic to Indians than his predecessors had been, although he had no compunction in signing death warrants when he thought them justified. He wanted Indians to be more united and friendly to the UK; his first major speech as Viceroy, and several more throughout his term of office, urged an end to communal violence Remilitarization Of The Rhineland Essay Hindus and Muslims.
The Indian School of Mines Dhanbad opened on 9 December during Irwin's term of office, to develop mining and geological sciences. The Government of India Act had incorporated the Montagu—Chelmsford Reforms " Diarchy " - shared rule between British and Indians at the local level and had promised that after ten years there would be a commission to inquire about a new constitution and to advise on whether further reforms were needed.
Irwin accepted that greater self-government was necessary as Indian national aspirations had grown since Birkenhead brought forward the date of the commission, and put it under Sir John Simon. Irwin recommended an all-British inquiry, as he thought that the Indian factions would not agree among themselves but would fall into line behind the results of the inquiry.
David Http://cocktail24.info/blog/part-time-work-resume.php believes that this was "the most fateful mistake of his viceroyalty, and one he came bitterly to regret". In Novemberthe composition of the Simon Commission was announced. All the leading Indian parties, including the Indian National Congressboycotted it. Irwin assured Birkenhead article source Simon could win over moderate Indian opinion.
Simon arrived in Bombay on 3 February He achieved some limited successes, but Irwin became convinced that a new gesture would be necessary. The Nehru Report May was produced in response to Simon's arrival, advocating dominion status. However, there was also violence, including the death of Lala Lajpat Rai source November and the revenge attack of Bhagat Singh in December On 13 JulyIrwin arrived in the UK on leave, bringing with him a "suggested" draft link of letters between MacDonald and Simon.
His plan was for Simon to write proposing a Round Table Conference to discuss the findings of the Commission, and that MacDonald would then reply pointing out that the Montagu Declaration implied a commitment to dominion status i. Simon saw the drafts and had serious misgivings about the planned Round Table Conference. The exchange of letters did not mention Dominion Status as the other Commissioners did Remilitarization Of The Rhineland Essay favour it, although Simon did not report the depth of their feeling, which he came to share, that such a declaration would undermine the findings of the Commission and that Dominion Remilitarization Of The Rhineland Essay would now become a minimum demand for the Indian leaders rather than an ultimate goal.
What Was The Remilitarization Of The Rhineland?
The author David Dutton finds it "curious" that Irwin, who had believed that Simon would not object to Dominion Status, did not understand this. Remilitarization Of The Rhineland Essay such a policy having been implicit for a decade, the Declaration was denounced by many on the Tory Right. Lord Reading Irwin's predecessor as Viceroy denounced it, and Simon made his displeasure known. There was brief hope source a breakthrough in Anglo-Indian relations, but the New Delhi Conference of December between Irwin and the Indian leaders failed to reach agreement.
Gandhi now began a campaign of civil disobedience with a view to achieving complete independence. He walked for 24 days to the sea, where he proceeded to make salt, in breach of the government's historic monopoly.
Irwin had all the Congress leaders put behind bars, including Gandhi eventually. Some criticism of Irwin may have been unfair, but he had made an error and the consequences were serious and unrest grew. Irwin's position was seen as excessively lenient by London but as half-hearted in India. With little room for manoeuvre, Irwin resorted to repression using his emergency powers to ban public gatherings and crush rebellious opposition.
Gandhi's detention, however, only made matters worse. In JanuaryGandhi was released and at Irwin's invitation they had eight meetings together.
Irwin wrote to his aged father that "it was rather like talking to read article who had stepped off another planet onto this for a short visit of a fortnight and whose mental outlook was quite other to that which was regulating most Remilitarization Of The Rhineland Essay the affairs on the planet to which he had descended".
But they had mutual respect based on their mutual religious faiths. The fortnight-long discussions resulted in the Remilitarization Of The Rhineland Essay Pact of 5 Marchafter which the Civil Disobedience Movement and the boycott of British goods were suspended in exchange for a Second Round Table Conference that represented all interests.
It was also agreed that Gandhi would join the Second Round Table Conference as the sole representative of the Congress. On Remilitarization Of The Rhineland Essay MarchIrwin paid tribute to Gandhi's honesty, sincerity and patriotism at a dinner given by ruling princes. On Irwin's return to England in Aprilthe situation was calm, but within a year the conference collapsed and Gandhi was again arrested. Despite the mixed outcomes, Irwin was overall a successful Viceroy; he had charted a clear and balanced course and had not lost the confidence of his home government.
He had demonstrated toughness and independence. His successful term as Viceroy ensured that he returned to British politics with significant prestige. Irwin returned to the UK on 3 May He was honoured with the KG he became chancellor of the order in In he declined the Foreign Office in the new National Government, not least because the Tory Right would not have liked it. Officially, he declared that he wanted to spend time at home. In Juneon the sudden death of Sir Donald Macleanhe returned to the Cabinet as President of the Board of Education, for the second time, having been apparently genuinely reluctant to accept.
His views were somewhat old-fashioned: In he inherited the title Viscount Halifax on the death of his year-old father. He helped Hoare draft what became the Government of India Actthe largest single piece of legislation of the — government.
He was pleased to give up the Education job. He felt the country was unprepared for war, but he resisted the Chiefs of Staffs' demands for rearmament.
By this time Halifax was becoming increasingly influential in foreign affairs.