Lobbyingpersuasionor interest representation is the act of attempting to influence the actions, policies, or decisions of officials in their daily life, most often legislators or members of Professional Personal Statement Ghostwriter Site Au agencies.
Lobbying is done by many types of people, associations and organized groups, including individuals in the private sectorcorporationsfellow legislators or government officials, or advocacy groups interest groups. Lobbyists may be among a legislator's constituencies, meaning a voter or bloc of voters within their electoral district ; they may engage in read article as a business.
Professional lobbyists are people whose business is trying to influence legislation, regulation, or other government decisions, actions, or policies on behalf of a group or individual who hires them. Individuals and nonprofit organizations can also lobby as an act of volunteering or as a small part of their normal job for instance, a CEO meeting with a representative about a project important to their company, or an activist meeting with their legislator in an unpaid capacity.
Governments often define and regulate organized group lobbying that has become influential. The ethics and morality of lobbying are double-edged. Lobbying is often spoken of with contemptwhen the implication is that people with inordinate socioeconomic power are corrupting the law twisting it away from fairness in order to serve their own interests. When people who have a duty to act on behalf of others, such as elected officials with a duty to serve their constituents' interests or more broadly the public good, can benefit by shaping the law to serve the interests of some private parties, a conflict of interest exists.
Many critiques of lobbying point to the potential for conflicts of interest to lead to agent misdirection or the intentional failure Professional Personal Statement Ghostwriter Site Au an agent with a duty to serve an employer, client, or constituent go here perform those duties.
The Professional Personal Statement Ghostwriter Site Au of government officials to serve the public interest as a consequence of lobbying by special interests who provide benefits to the official is an link of agent misdirection.
In a report carried by the BBCan OED lexicographer has shown that "lobbying" finds its roots in the gathering of Members of Parliament and peers in the hallways "lobbies" of the UK Houses of Parliament before and after parliamentary debates where members of the public can meet their representatives.
Grant to describe the political advocates who frequented the hotel's lobby to access Grant—who was often there in the evenings to enjoy a cigar and brandy—and would then try to buy the president drinks in an attempt to continue reading his political decisions.
The term "lobbying" also appeared in print as early as Other letters from Washington affirm, that members of the Senate, when the compromise question was to be taken in the House, were not only "lobbying about the Representatives' Chamber" but also active in endeavoring to intimidate certain weak representatives by insulting threats to dissolve the Union.
Governments often define and regulate organized group lobbying     as part of laws to prevent political corruption and by establishing transparency about possible influences by public lobby registers. Lobby groups may concentrate their efforts on the legislatures, where laws are created, but may also use the judicial branch to advance their causes.
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored Peoplefor example, filed suits in state and federal courts in the s to challenge segregation laws.
Their efforts resulted in the Supreme Court declaring such laws unconstitutional. They may use a legal device known as amicus curiaeliterally "friend of the court," briefs to try to influence court cases.
Briefs are written documents filed with a court, typically by parties to a click here. Amici curiae briefs are briefs filed by people or groups who are not parties to a this web page. These briefs are entered into the court records, and give additional background on the matter being decided upon.
Advocacy groups use these briefs both to share their expertise and to promote their positions. The lobbying industry is Professional Personal Statement Ghostwriter Site Au by the revolving door concept, a movement of personnel between roles as legislators and regulators and the industries affected by the legislation and regulation, as the main Professional Personal Statement Ghostwriter Site Au for a lobbyist is contacts with and influence on government officials.
This industrial climate is attractive for ex-government officials. It can also mean substantial monetary rewards for the lobbying firms and government projects and contracts in the hundreds of millions for those they represent.
Over the past twenty years lobbying in Australia has grown from a small industry of a few hundred employees to a multibillion-dollar per year industry.
Lobbying has become a political fact of life and is now endemic in local, state, and federal government. It is not just the local councillors and state and federal politicians being lobbied.
What was once the preserve of big multinational companies and at a more local level, property developers, for example Urban Taskforce Australiahas morphed into an industry that would employ more than 10, people and represent every facet of human endeavour. A register of federal lobbyists is kept by the Australian Government and is accessible to the public via its website. Since April in Western Australia, only lobbyists listed on the state's register are allowed to contact a government representative for the purpose of lobbying.
In there were around 15, lobbyists consultants, lawyers, associations, corporations, NGOs etc. Some 2, special interest groups had a permanent office in Brussels. Their distribution was roughly as follows: These potential conflicts of interest could be avoided if a stronger ethics framework would be established at the EU level, including an independent ethics body and longer cooling-off periods for MEPs.
But there is currently no regulation at all for lobbying activities in France and, as a consequence, this practice suffers from a lack of transparency. There is no regulated access to the French institutions and no register specific to France, but there is one for the European Union  where French lobbyists can register themselves.
Also, there is no rule at all for consultation of interest groups by the Parliament and the Government. Nevertheless, a recent parliamentary initiative motion for a resolution has been launched by several MPs so as to establish a register for representatives of interest groups and lobbyists who intend to lobby the MPs. A study finds evidence of significant indirect lobbying of Berlusconi through business proxies.
Lobbying in the United States describes paid activity in which special interests hire professional advocates to argue for specific legislation in decision-making bodies such as the United States Congress.
Congress shall make no law…abridging the right of the people peaceably…to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. Some lobbyists are now using social media to reduce the cost of traditional campaigns, and to more precisely target public officials with political messages. A number of published studies showed lobbying expenditure is correlated with great financial returns. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Lobbying in the United Kingdom. Lobbying in the United States.
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List of basic public affairs topics. Retrieved 24 March Random House Unabridged Dictionary. Legal Definitions" Archived at the Wayback Machine. Senate definition of Lobbying. Burger, "The Lobbying Game: Methodology" Archived at the Wayback Machine. Center for Responsive Politics. Public Sector Commission - Register of Lobbyists. Government of Western Australia. Government of South Australia.
State Government of Victoria.
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Retrieved September 14, Hiring a top-flight lobbyist looks like a spectacular investment Russell; Woehr, David J. Retrieved November 26, Office of the This web page of Lobbying of Canada. Retrieved January 15, Chinese wall Conflict of interest in the healthcare industry Funding bias Insider trading Judicial disqualification Click Regulatory capture Self-dealing Self-regulation State capture Shill.
Conflict of interest Principal—agent problem Rent-seeking. Agricultural subsidy Military—industrial complex The New Deal and corporatism.
Crony capitalism Corporatism State capitalism State monopoly capitalism. Look up Lobby in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lobbyists.