So you are a Scorpio.
Then you must be passionate. So the barometer says that the atmospheric pressure is declining.
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Then it is going to rain. So your latitude is less than 20 degrees. Then your country must be poor. There may be some debate about which of these statements is true, but only Pay To Do Geography Thesis is truly offensive — the last one.
People take offense at such a connection because it smacks of racism and undermines the notion of equal opportunity among nations and individuals. It is also paralyzing and defeatist: What can policymakers and politicians do or promise if nothing can overcome geography? From World War II through the mids, these sentiments prompted a backlash against the study of economic geography in much of the academic world.
Today, however, new theories of economic growth coupled with empirical research have brought economic geography back to the forefront of the development debate. Treasury Secretary Lawrence Summers decried "the tyranny of geography," particularly in African countries, and warned against concluding that "the economic failures of isolated, tropical nations with poor soil, an erratic climate and vulnerability to infectious disease can be traced simply to the failure of governments to put in place the right enabling environment.
What if geography gets in the way of the Promised Land? Closing Pay To Do Geography Thesis income gap between rich and poor countries has been a stated objective of the international community for the last 50 years. This commitment spawned the creation or redesign of institutions such as the World Bank, specialized United Nations agencies such as the United Nations Development Programme and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, regional development banks such as the Inter-American Development Bank idbbilateral aid agencies in the governments of the most advanced economies, Work Proofreading Usa Professional Home Sites innumerable foundations, research centers, and other nongovernmental organizations.
But the global gap between rich and poor countries has not closed. Instead, it has widened. Economist Angus Maddison estimates that, inWestern Europe was 2.
Bythis gap had risen to The countries left behind have distinguishing geographical characteristics: They tend to be located in tropical regions or, because Pay To Do Geography Thesis their location, face large transportation costs in accessing world markets — or both. Intropical countries had an average income equivalent to roughly one third of the income of temperate-zone read article.
Of the 24 countries classified as "industrial," not one lies Pay To Do Geography Thesis the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, except for the northern part of Australia and most of the Hawaiian Islands. Among the richest 30 economies in the world, only Brunei, Hong Kong, and Singapore are in tropical zones, and their geographical locations leave them ideally suited for growth through trade.
Tropical nations tend to have annual rates of economic growth that are between one half and a full percentage point lower than temperate countries. A recent idb study found that after considering the quality of institutions and economic policies, geography explained about a quarter of the income difference between industrialized and Latin American countries in Tropical countries also have poorer health conditions than their nontropical counterparts.
After considering income levels and female education, life expectancy in tropical regions is seven years lower than in temperate zones. Nations in tropical areas often display especially skewed income distributions.
In Africa and Latin America, the richest 5 Pay To Do Geography Thesis of the population earn nearly 25 percent of the national income, while in industrial countries they earn only 13 percent. Latitude alone can click here half of this difference. Even within regions of the same country, living standards are strongly linked to geography.
Nations with populations far from a coastline also tend to be poorer and show lower rates of economic growth than coastal countries.
A country whose population is farther than kilometers from the sea grows 0. That means, for example, that the post-Soviet republics will experience as much difficulty battling their geographical disadvantages as they will Pay To Do Geography Thesis the aftereffects of communism.
Countries that are tropical, far from the coast, and landlocked have three geographical strikes against them. Many countries in Africa are handicapped by one or all of these factors. There is still much we do not understand about the links between Resume For Automotive Sales and economic growth. But what we do know suggests that the challenges of economic development must be examined from a very new perspective.
Denying the impact of geography will only lead to misguided policies and wasted effort. Geography may pose severe constraints on economic growth, but it need not be destiny. To understand why geography can matter so much for economic development, consider what economists regard as the main engines of growth: Access to markets based on the work of Scottish economist Adam Smith and technological progress drawn from the writings of U.
For Adam Smith, productivity gains achieved through specialization are the secret to the wealth of nations. But for these gains to materialize, producers must have access to markets where they can sell their specialized output and buy other goods.
The larger the market, the greater the scope for specialization. Therefore, if see more costs are high, local companies will be at a disadvantage in accessing the imported inputs they need and in getting their own goods to foreign markets.
A recent study found that shipping goods over 1 additional kilometer of land costs as much as shipping them over 7 extra kilometers of sea. Maritime shipping is particularly suited to the bulky, low-value-added goods that developing nations tend to produce; therefore, countries lacking cheap access to the sea will be shut out of many potential markets.
Moreover, if countries far from the sea do not enjoy the physical infrastructure the system of roads, railways, and ports needed for access to navigable rivers or the sea, they will not develop the very industries that could help maintain such an infrastructure. Land transportation is especially costly for landlocked countries whose products need to cross borders, which are a much more costly hurdle than previously thought. Studies on trade between U.
Little link, then, that the median landlocked country pays up to 50 percent more Read more transportation costs than the median coastal nation. In practical terms, these differences can be enormous: Governments in landlocked countries face the additional challenge of coordinating infrastructure expenditures with neighboring countries.
Sometimes, political or commercial problems inhibit passage to the sea. For example, the agricultural potential of the upper Parana River basin in landlocked Paraguay remained dormant until a Mercosur agreement in the mids facilitated barge transportation through Brazil and Argentina. These instances illustrate why landlocked nations suffer from sluggish economic growth.
Countries and territories like Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore have an advantageous geographical position, but much of inland Africa, China, and India remains far from markets and maritime trade. Geography harms developing countries in other ways.
This notion is what Schumpeter had in mind when he coined his famous term, "creative destruction. The more people who use and pay for a new idea, the greater its market value.
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For example, a new computer program or novel may cost a lot to produce, but subsequent copies are extremely cheap. Unsurprisingly, rich countries with large, middle-class populations are more lucrative markets than poor nations with little purchasing power.
Even though innovations such as computers or cellular phones work in many geographical conditions and are therefore easily adopted by developing countries, technologies in other sectors often require research that is very location-specific.
Many technologies are not universally applicable; their effectiveness depends on the geographical or climatic conditions in which they are used. Rich nations also benefit from the expenditures of private agricultural producers — a source of funding that is virtually nonexistent in developing nations.
Geography aggravates this disparity. Countries like Argentina, Chile, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa can enjoy thriving export sectors in fruit, wine, cereals, oilseeds, and salmon thanks to the technologies developed for these products in temperate zones in the Northern Hemisphere. But the tropical countries — with their production of coffee, cocoa, sugar go here, and cassava — are left out of the modern-technology club.
The result is that the agricultural sector is much less dynamic in tropical areas than in temperate zones. Since unproductive agricultural workers can produce little more than what they require for personal subsistence and therefore cannot support large urban populationsrural areas remain sparsely populated, have small, poor markets, and suffer from high transportation costs — all of which hamper economic growth.
Climate differences and economies Pay To Do Geography Thesis scale have long played a powerful role in the development of agriculture in different geographical link. Since climate changes little with longitude but quite rapidly with latitude, the Eurasian landmass enjoyed fairly uniform climatic conditions. Hence, agricultural innovations developed in one region could travel long distances and be shared by many people, resulting in a large Pay To Do Geography Thesis of plant and animal varieties available throughout the region.
By contrast, new varieties developed in the Americas or in Africa could not migrate very far since climates change swiftly, limiting the technological opportunities available to these regions and stunting Pay To Do Geography Thesis growth. Of course, agricultural productivity and transportation cost advantages do not necessarily go together. As historian David S. Landes points out in The Wealth and Poverty of Nationsthe ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt had their most fertile lands along rivers.
This location — far removed from the seashore — limited their read more to expand their economies through trade. Their power eventually waned and they were supplanted by the seafaring Phoenicians, Greeks, and Romans.
Investments in health research and technology are also very sensitive to geography. Diseases such as malaria, hookworm, schistosomiasis, river blindness, and yellow fever are hard to control in tropical regions because the lack of seasons makes the reproduction of mosquitoes and other disease transmitters rather constant throughout the year.
Of the aforementioned tropical diseases, only yellow fever has been controlled through an effective vaccine. Technological development is skewed away from the needs of geographically disadvantaged countries.
Thus, children in tropical regions often die of gastrointestinal and other infectious diseases, while many nations still suffer from endemic tropical ailments. Economists John Luke Gallup and Jeffrey Sachs estimate that per capita economic growth in countries with severe malaria is more than a full percentage point lower than in nations where this illness is not prevalent, and that a 10 percent reduction in the incidence of malaria is associated with 0.
The costs of not dealing with disease in tropical countries go far beyond higher healthcare expenses and reduced worker productivity.
Disease can no longer be considered a mere public health problem, but a socioeconomic development issue that affects everything from trade flows to migration patterns. The plague outbreak in Surat, India, promptedpeople to move from the region and led to work stoppages across several industries, as well as new restrictions on international trade. The dominant development paradigm these days holds that market-oriented economic policies and the rule of law are all that Pay To Do Geography Thesis for economic progress.
In other words, Mozambique could become Singapore if it would only get its institutions and policies in order; in the meantime, we could alleviate poverty through targeted social spending for the poor, such as the financing of education for girls. But this mantra vastly oversimplifies the challenges of development. If a region is poor because its geography undermines agricultural productivity, impedes market access, and facilitates endemic disease, then good domestic policies will hardly suffice to foster growth.
Poverty will not disappear because of expanded nutrition programs or improvements in the teaching materials available in schools. At best, better trained students simply will migrate to more prosperous regions. From this perspective, it may be more important to devote time and resources to transportation infrastructure, which lowers the costs of trading, new technologies for agriculture and public health, and economic integration projects than to focus solely on areas visit web page health, education, and the rule of law.
Infrastructure Development If small, rural communities in developing countries are to experience economic growth, it is crucial to connect them with the rest of their country and the world through investments in roads and other transportation infrastructure.