Past Ap Biology Essays And Standards - Vision professional

terrified screams the twoThe questions are organized according to units. The unique properties characteristics of water make life possible on Earth.

Select three properties of water and:. After an enzyme is mixed with its substrate, the amount of product formed is determined at second intervals for 1 minute. Data from this experiment are shown below:. Describe the fluid-mosaic model of a plasma membrane. Discuss the role of the membrane in the movement of materials through it by each of the following processes:. Describe the structure of a eukaryotic plant cell. Indicate the ways in which a nonphotosynthetic prokaryotic cell would differ in structure from this generalized eukaryotic plant cell.

Discuss the process of cell division in animals. Include a description of mitosis and cytokinesis, and of the other phases of the cell cycle.

Do Not include meiosis. A laboratory assistant prepared solution of 0.

AP Biology 2017 Free Response (FRQ) Possible Solutions*

After realizing the error, the assistant randomly labeled the flasks containing these four unknown solutions as flask A, flask B, flask C, and flask D. Design an experiment, based on the principles of diffusion and osmosis, that the assistant could use to determine which of the flasks contains each of the four unknown solutions.

Include in your answer a a description of how you would set up and perform the experiment: Be sure to clearly state the principles addressed in your discussion. Cells transport substances across their membranes. Describe the similarities and differences between the biochemical pathways of aerobic respiration and photosynthesis in eukaryotic cells. Include in your discussion the major reactions, the end products, and energy transfers.

The rate of photosynthesis may vary with changes that occur in environmental temperature, wavelength of light, and light intensity. Using a photosynthetic organism of your choice, choose only ONE see more the three variables temperature, wavelength of light, or light intensity and for this variable.

Describe the light reactions of photosynthesis and, for both a C3 and a C4 plant, trace the path of a carbon dioxide molecule from the point at which it enters a plant to visit web page incorporation into a glucose molecule.

Include leaf anatomy and biochemical pathways in your discussion of each type of plant. Explain what occurs during the Krebs citric acid cycle and electron transport by describing the following: Energy transfer occurs in all cellular activities. For 3 of the following 5 processes involving energy transfer, explain how each functions in the cell and give an example. Explain how ATP is involved in each example you choose.

The results below are measurements of cumulative oxygen consumption by germinating and dry seeds. Gas volume measurements were corrected for changes in temperature and pressure. State the conclusions reached by Mendel in his work on the inheritance of characteristics. Explain how each of the following deviates from these conclusions. Experiments by the following scientists provided critical information concerning See more. Describe each classical experiment and indicate how it provided evidence for the chemical nature of the gene.

Explain how the events of meiosis I account for the observations that led Mendel to formulate these laws. An organism is heterozygous at two genetic loci on different chromosomes. A portion of specific DNA molecule consists of the following sequence of nucleotide triplets. Describe the steps in the synthesis of this polypeptide. What would be Past Ap Biology Essays And Standards effect of a deletion or an addition in one of the DNA nucleotides?

What would be the effects of a substitution in one of the nucleotides? Describe the operon hypothesis and discuss how it explains the control of messenger RNA production and the regulation of protein Past Ap Biology Essays And Standards in bacterial cells. Describe the biochemical composition, structure, and replication of DNA. Discuss how recombinant DNA techniques may be used to correct a point mutation.

Describe the production and processing of a protein that will be exported from a eukaryotic cell. Begin with the Past Ap Biology Essays And Standards of the messenger RNA from the DNA template and end with the release of the protein at the plasma membrane. Describe the steps of protein synthesis, beginning with the attachment of a messenger RNA molecule to the small subunit of a ribosome and ending generalized with the release of the polypeptide from the ribosome.

Include in your answer a discussion of how the different types of RNA function in this process. The diagram below shows a segment of DNA with a total length of 4, base pairs. The arrows indicate reaction sites for two restriction enzymes enzyme X and enzyme Y.

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By using the techniques of genetic engineering, scientists are able to modify genetic materials so that a particular gene of interest from one cell can be incorporated into a different cell. Assume that a particular genetic condition in a mammalian species causes an inability to digest starch.

This disorder occurs with equal frequency in males and females. In most cases, neither parent of affected offspring has the condition. Describe the special relationship between the two terms in each of the following pairs. Describe the modern theory of evolution and discuss how it is supported by evidence from two of the following areas. Describe the process of speciation.

Include in your discussion the factors that may contribute to the maintenance of genetic isolation. In a laboratory population of diploid, sexually reproducing organisms a certain trait is studied. This trait is determined by a single autosomal gene and is expressed as two phenotypes. A new population was created by crossing 51 pure breeding homozygous dominant individuals with 49 pure breeding homozygous individuals. After four generations, the following results were obtained.

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Identify an organism that might have been used to perform this experiment, and link why this organism is a good choice for conducting this experiment.

On the basis of the data, propose a hypothesis that explains the change in phenotypic frequency between generation 1 and generation 3. Is there evidence indicating whether or not this population is in Past Ap Biology Essays And Standards equilibrium? Scientists recently have proposed a reorganization of the phylogenetic system of classification to include the domain, a new taxonomic category higher more inclusive than the Kingdom category, as shown in the following diagram.

In the life cycles of a fern and a flowering plant, compare and contrast each of the following: Describe the differences between the terms in each of the following pairs. Select two of the following three pairs and discuss the evolutionary relationships between the two members of just click for source pair you have chosen. In your discussion include structural adaptations and the functional significance.

Describe the structure of a mammalian respiratory system. Include in your discussion the mechanisms of inspiration and expiration. Describe the processes of fat and protein digestion and product absorption as they occur in the human stomach and small intestine. Include a discussion of the enzymatic reactions involved. Describe the following mechanisms of response to foreign materials in the human body.

Discuss the processes of exchange of O2 and CO2 that occur at the alveoli and muscle cells of mammals. Include in your answer a description of the transport of these gases in the blood. The graph below shows the response of the human immune system to exposure to an antigen. Use this graph to answer part a and part b of this question.

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Discuss the processes of cleavage, gastrulation, and neurulation in the frog embryo; tell what each process accomplishes. Describe an experiment that illustrates the importance of induction in development. The evolutionary success of organisms depends on reproduction. Some groups of organisms reproduce asexually, some reproduce sexually, while others reproduce both sexually and asexually.

Discuss the sources and actions of each of the following pairs of hormones in humans and describe the feedback mechanisms that control their release. Beginning at the presynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction, describe the physical and biochemical events involved in the contraction of a skeletal muscle fiber.

Include the structure of the fiber in your discussion. Describe the negative and positive feedback loops, and discuss how feedback mechanisms regulate each of the following. Discuss how cellular structures, including the plasma membrane, specialized endoplasmic reticulum, cytoskeletal elements, and mitochondria, function together in the contraction of skeletal muscle cells. Structure and function are related in the various organ systems of animals.

Select two of the following four organ systems in vertebrates: For each of the two systems you choose, discuss the structure and function of two adaptations that aid in the transport or exchange of molecules or ions. Be sure to relate structure to function in each example. Relate the structure of an angiosperm leaf to each of the following: Past Ap Biology Essays And Standards the following plant responses and explain the mechanism of control for each.

Cite experimental evidence as part of your discussion. Describe the structure of a bean seed and discuss its germination to the seedling stage.

Include in your essay hormonal controls, structural changes, and tissue differentiation. Describe the effects of plant hormones on plant growth and development. Design an experiment to demonstrate the effect of one of these plant hormones on plant growth and development. Trace the pathway in a flowering plant as the water moves from the soil through the tissues of the root, stem, and leaves to the atmosphere.