Ukraine is currently in a territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsulawhich Russia annexed in  but which Ukraine and most of the international community recognise as Ukrainian. Excluding Crimea, Ukraine has a population of about The territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32, BC.
During the Middle Agesthe area was a key centre of East Slavic culture, with the powerful state thoughts How To Write A Resume Or authentic Kievan Rus' forming the basis of Ukrainian identity. Following its fragmentation in the 13th century, the territory was contested, ruled and divided by a variety of powers, including LithuaniaPoland, the Ottoman EmpireAustria-Hungaryand Russia.
A Cossack republic emerged and prospered Oil And Gas Translator English To Russian Native Speaker Resume the 17th and 18th centuries, but its territory was eventually split between Poland and the Russian Empireand later merged fully into Russia. During the 20th century three periods of independence occurred.
The first of these periods occurred briefly during and immediately after the German occupation click the end of World War I and the second occurred, also briefly, and also during German occupation, during World War II. However, both of these first two earlier periods would eventually see Ukraine's territories consolidated back into a Soviet republic within the USSR.
The third period of independence began inwhen Ukraine gained its independence from the Soviet Union in the aftermath of its dissolution at the end of the Cold War. Ukraine has maintained its independence as a sovereign state ever since.
Before its independence, Ukraine was typically referred to in English as "The Ukraine", but sources since then have moved to drop "the" from the name of Ukraine in all uses. Following its independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state. It was later agreed that the question of joining NATO should be answered by a national referendum at some point in the future. These events formed the background for the annexation of Crimea by Russia in Marchand the War in Donbass in April Ukraine has long been a global breadbasket because of its extensive, fertile farmlands and is one of the world's largest grain exporters.
Ukraine is a unitary republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers: Its capital and largest city is Kiev. Taking into account reserves and paramilitary personnel,  Ukraine maintains the second-largest military in Europe after that of Russia. The country is home to Ukrainian is the official language and its alphabet is Cyrillic.
The dominant religion in the country is Eastern Orthodoxywhich has strongly influenced Ukrainian architectureliterature and music. There are different hypotheses as to the etymology of the name Ukraine. According to the older and most widespread hypothesis, it means "borderland",  while more recently some linguistic studies claim a different meaning: Neanderthal settlement in Ukraine is seen in the Molodova archaeological sites 43,—45, BC which include a mammoth bone dwelling.
Modern human settlement in Ukraine and its vicinity dates back to 32, BC, with evidence of the Gravettian culture in the Crimean Mountains.
The Goths stayed in the area but came under the sway of the Huns from the s AD. At the end of the century, the majority of Bulgar tribes migrated in different directions, and the Khazars took over much of the land.
In the 5th and 6th centuries, the Antes Union was located in the territory of what this web page now.
The Antes were the ancestors of Ukrainians: Migrations from Ukraine throughout the Balkans established many Southern Slavic nations. Northern migrations, reaching almost to the Ilmen Lakesled to the emergence of the Ilmen SlavsKrivichsand Radimichsthe groups ancestral to the Russians. After an Avar raid in and the collapse of the Antes Union, most of these peoples survived as separate tribes until the beginning of the second millennium.
Kievan Rus' included the central, western and northern part of modern Ukraine, Belarusfar eastern strip of Poland Oil And Gas Translator English To Russian Native Speaker Resume the western part of present-day Russia. According to the Primary Chronicle the Rus' elite initially consisted of Varangians from Scandinavia.
The Varangians later assimilated into the Slavic population and became part of the first Rus' dynasty, the Rurik Dynasty. During the reign of his go here, Yaroslav the Wise —Kievan Rus' reached the zenith of its cultural development and military power. After a final resurgence under the rule of Vladimir II Monomakh — and his son Mstislav —Kievan Rus' finally disintegrated this web page separate principalities following Mstislav's death.
The 13th century Mongol invasion devastated Kievan Rus'. Kiev was totally destroyed in Danylo was crowned by the papal archbishop in Dorohychyn as the first King of all Rus'. Under Danylo's http://cocktail24.info/blog/resume-with-i-hereby.php, the Kingdom of Galicia—Volhynia was one of the most powerful states in east central Europe.
Meanwhile, the heartland of Rus', including Kiev, became the territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, ruled by Gediminas and his successors, after the Battle on the Irpen' River. Following the Union of Krewoa dynastic union between Poland and Lithuania, much of what became northern Ukraine was ruled by the increasingly Slavicised local Lithuanian nobles as part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. By the so-called Galicia—Volhynia Wars ended.
Polish colonisers of depopulated lands in northern and central Ukraine founded or re-founded many towns. In the Union of Lublin established the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth, and much Ukrainian territory was transferred from Lithuania to the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, becoming Polish territory de jure.
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Under the demographic, cultural and political pressure of Polonisationwhich began in the late 14th century, many click gentry of Polish Ruthenia another name for the land of Rus converted to Catholicism and became indistinguishable from the Polish nobility. The Cossacks did not shy from taking up arms against those they perceived as enemies, including the Polish state and its local representatives.
Formed from Golden Horde territory conquered after the Mongol invasion learn more here Crimean Khanate was one of the strongest powers in Eastern Europe until the 18th century; in it even captured and devastated Moscow.
From the beginning of the 16th century until the end of the 17th century, Crimean Tatar slave raiding bands  exported about two million slaves from Russia and Ukraine.
The Oil And Gas Translator English To Russian Native Speaker Resume remnant of the Crimean Khanate was finally conquered by the Russian Empire in The Cossacks sought representation in the Polish Sejmrecognition of Orthodox traditions, and the gradual expansion of the Cossack Registry. These were rejected by the Polish nobility, who dominated the Sejm.
Khmelnytskydeserted by his Tatar allies, suffered a crushing defeat at Berestechko inand turned to the Russian tsar for help. InKhmelnytsky signed the Treaty of Pereyaslavforming a military and political alliance with Russia that acknowledged loyalty to the Russian tsar. In — came " The Ruin ", a devastating year war amongst Russia, Poland, Turks and Cossacks for control of Ukraine, which occurred at about the same time as the Deluge of Poland. The wars escalated in intensity with hundreds of thousands of deaths.
Defeat came in as the " Eternal Peace " between Russia and Poland divided the Ukrainian lands between them. Eventually Peter recognized that to consolidate and modernize Russia's political and economic power it was necessary to do away with the hetmanate and Ukrainian and Cossack aspirations to autonomy.
Mazepa died in exile after fleeing from the Battle of Poltavawhere the Swedes and their Cossack allies suffered a catastrophic defeat. The Constitution limited the executive authority of the hetman, and established a democratically elected Cossack parliament called the General Council. Pylyp Orlyk's Constitution was unique for its historic period, and was one of the first state constitutions in Europe. The hetmanate was abolished in ; the Zaporizhska Sich abolished inas Russia centralised control over its lands.
As part of the partitioning of Poland inandthe Ukrainian lands west of the Dnieper were divided between Russia and Austria. From toexpansion into the northern Black Sea littoral and the eastern Danube valley was a cornerstone of Russian foreign policy. Lithuanians and Poles controlled vast estates in Ukraine, and were a law unto themselves.
Judicial rulings from Cracow were routinely flouted, while peasants were heavily taxed and practically tied to the land as serfs.
Occasionally the landowners battled each other using armies of Ukrainian peasants. The Poles and Lithuanians were Roman Catholics and tried with some success to convert the Orthodox lesser nobility. Inthey set up the "Greek-Catholic" or Uniate Church ; it dominates western Ukraine to this day.
Get the latest international news and world events from Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and more. See world news photos and videos at cocktail24.info Per the Associated Press, before the hurricane made landfall on Friday night, “Dozens of oil and gas platforms had been evacuated, at least three refineries had. Резюме на английском, как и на русском, можно написать несколькими способами. Шаблоны есть. Ukraine (/ juː ˈ k r eɪ n / (listen) yoo-KRAYN; Ukrainian: Україна, translit. Ukrajina [ukrɑˈjinɑ]), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state. English vocabulary word lists and various games, puzzles and quizzes to help you study them.
Religious differentiation left the Ukrainian Orthodox peasants leaderless, as they were reluctant to follow the Ukrainian nobles. Cossacks led an uprising, called Koliivshchynastarting in the Ukrainian borderlands of the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth in Ethnicity was one root cause of this revolt, which included Ukrainian violence that killed tens of thousands of Poles and Jews. Religious warfare read article broke out among Ukrainian groups.
Increasing conflict between Uniate and Orthodox parishes along the newly reinforced Polish-Russian border on the Dnieper River in the time of Catherine II set the stage for the uprising. As Uniate religious practices had become more Latinized, Orthodoxy in this region drew even closer into dependence on the Russian Orthodox Church.
Confessional tensions also reflected opposing Polish and Russian political allegiances. However, within the Empire, Ukrainians rose to the highest Russian state and church offices.
In the 19th century, Ukraine was a rural area largely ignored by Russia and Austria. With growing urbanization and modernization, and a cultural trend toward romantic nationalisma Ukrainian intelligentsia committed to national rebirth and social justice emerged. The serf-turned-national-poet Taras Shevchenko — and the political theorist Mykhailo Drahomanov — led the growing nationalist movement. After the Russo-Turkish War —Catherine the Great Oil And Gas Translator English To Russian Native Speaker Resume her immediate successors encouraged German immigration into Ukraine and especially into Crimeato thin the previously dominant Turk population and encourage agriculture.
Beginning in the 19th century, there was migration from Ukraine to distant areas of the Russian Empire. According to the census, there wereethnic Ukrainians in Siberia andin Central Asia. Nationalist and socialist parties developed in the late 19th century. Austrian Galiciaunder the relatively lenient rule of the Habsburgsbecame the centre of the nationalist movement. Those suspected of Russophile sentiments in Austria were treated harshly. World War I destroyed both empires.
The Russian Revolution of led to the founding of the Soviet Union under the Bolsheviksand subsequent civil war in Russia. A Ukrainian national movement for self-determination re-emerged, with heavy Communist and Socialist influence.
Several Ukrainian states briefly emerged: Sophia Square in Kiev. With establishment of the Soviet power, Ukraine lost half of its territory to Poland, Belarus and Russia, while on the more info bank of Dniester River was created Moldavian autonomy.
The war in Ukraine continued for another two years; byhowever, most of Ukraine had been taken over by the Soviet Union, while Galicia and Volhynia West Ukraine were incorporated into independent Poland. Bukovina was annexed by Romania and Carpathian Ruthenia was admitted to the Czechoslovak Republic as an autonomy.
A powerful underground Ukrainian nationalist movement arose in Poland in the s and s because of Polish national policies, which was led by the Ukrainian Military Organization and the Organisation of Ukrainian Nationalists OUN. The movement attracted a militant following among students.
Hostilities between Polish state authorities and the popular movement led to a substantial number of fatalities, and the autonomy which had been promised was never implemented.