Nature In English Poetry Essay - Experts' opinions

the Queensland themeThis article focuses on poetry written in English from the United Kingdom: However, though the whole of Ireland was politically part of the United Kingdom between January and Decemberit can be controversial to describe Irish literature as Britishand Nature In English Poetry Essay some this includes authors from Northern Ireland.

The article does not include poetry from other countries where the English language is spoken. The earliest surviving English poetrywritten in Anglo-Saxonthe direct predecessor of modern English, may have been composed as early as the 7th century. Much of the poetry of the period is difficult to date, or even to arrange chronologically; for example, estimates for the date of the great continue reading Beowulf range from AD right through to ADand there has never been anything even approaching a consensus.

By and large, however, Anglo-Saxon poetry is categorised by the manuscripts in which it survives, rather than its date of composition. While the poetry that has survived is limited in volume, it is wide in breadth. Beowulf is the only heroic epic to have survived in its entirety, but fragments of others such as Waldere and the Finnesburg Fragment show that it was not unique in its time.

Other genres include much religious verse, from devotional works to biblical paraphrase; elegies such as The WandererThe Seafarerand The Ruin often taken to be a description of the ruins of Bath ; and numerous proverbs, riddlesand charms. With one notable exception Rhyming PoemAnglo-Saxon poetry depends on alliterative verse for its structure and any rhyme included is merely ornamental.

With the Norman conquest of England, beginning in the Anglo-Saxon language rapidly diminished as a written literary language. The new aristocracy spoke predominantly Normanand this became the standard language of courts, parliament, and polite society. As the invaders integrated, their language and literature mingled with that of the natives: While Anglo-Norman or Latin was preferred for high culture, English literature by no means died out, and a number of important works illustrate the development of the language.

Around the turn of the 13th century, Layamon wrote his Brutbased on Wace 's 12th century Anglo-Norman epic of the same name; Layamon's language is recognisably Middle English, though his prosody shows a strong Anglo-Saxon influence remaining. Other transitional works were preserved as popular entertainment, including a variety of romances and lyrics.

With time, the English language regained prestige, and in it replaced French and Latin in Parliament and courts of law. It was with the 14th century that major works of English literature began once again to appear; these include the so-called Pearl Poet 's PearlPatienceCleannessand Sir Gawain and the Green Knight ; Langland 's political and religious allegory Piers Plowman ; Gower 's Confessio Amantis ; and the works of Chaucerthe most highly regarded English poet of the Nature In English Poetry Essay Ages, who was seen by his contemporaries as a successor to the great tradition of Virgil and Dante.

The reputation of Chaucer's successors in the 15th century has suffered in comparison with him, though Lydgate and Skelton are widely studied.

A group of Scottish writers arose who were formerly believed to be influenced by Chaucer. Henryson and Douglas introduced a note of almost savage satire, which may have owed something to the Gaelic bardswhile Douglas' Eneadosa translation into Middle Scots of Virgil's Aeneidwas the first complete translation of any major work of classical antiquity into an English or Anglic language.

The Renaissance was slow in coming to England, with the generally accepted start date being around It is also generally accepted that the English Renaissance extended until the Restoration in However, a number of factors had prepared the way for the introduction of the new learning long before this start date. A number of medieval poets had, as already noted, shown an interest in the ideas of Aristotle and the writings of European Renaissance precursors such as Dante.

The introduction of movable-block printing by Caxton in provided the means for the more rapid dissemination of new or recently rediscovered writers and thinkers. Caxton also printed the works of Chaucer and Gower and these books helped establish the idea of a native poetic tradition that was linked to its European counterparts.

In addition, Nature In English Poetry Essay writings of English humanists like Thomas More and Thomas Nature In English Poetry Essay helped bring the ideas and attitudes associated with the see more learning to an English audience. Three other factors in the establishment of the English Renaissance were the ReformationCounter Reformation, and the opening of the era of English naval power and overseas exploration and expansion.

The establishment of the Church of England in accelerated the process of questioning the Catholic world-view that had previously dominated intellectual and artistic life. At the same time, long-distance sea voyages helped provide the stimulus and information that underpinned a new understanding of the nature of the Nature In English Poetry Essay which resulted in the theories of Nicolaus Copernicus and Johannes Kepler.

With a small number of exceptions, the early years of the 16th century are not particularly notable.

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The Douglas Aeneid was completed in and John Skelton wrote poems that were transitional between the late Medieval and Renaissance styles. Thomas Wyatt —42one of the earliest English Renaissance poets. Wyatt took subject matter from Petrarch's sonnets, but his rhyme schemes make a significant departure.

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Petrarch's sonnets consist of an " octave ", Nature In English Poetry Essay abba abbafollowed, after a turn volta in the sense, by a sestet with various rhyme schemes; however his poems never ended in a rhyming couplet.

Wyatt employs the Petrarchan octave, but his most common sestet scheme is cddc ee. This marks the beginnings of the Click sonnet with 3 quatrains and a closing couplet.

The Elizabethan period to in poetry is characterized by a number of frequently overlapping developments. The introduction and adaptation of themes, models and verse forms from other European traditions and classical literature, the Elizabethan song tradition, the emergence of a courtly poetry often centred around the figure of the monarch and the growth of a verse-based drama are among the most important of these developments.

There are also a large number of extant anonymous songs from the period. Perhaps the greatest of all the songwriters was Thomas Campion.

Campion is also notable because of his experiments with metres based on counting syllables rather than stresses. These quantitative metres were based on classical models and should Nature In English Poetry Essay viewed as part of the wider Renaissance revival of Greek and Roman artistic methods.

The songs were generally printed either in miscellanies or anthologies such as Richard Tottel 's Songs and Sonnets or in songbooks that included printed music to enable performance. These performances formed an integral part of both public and private entertainment. By the end of the 16th century, a new generation of composers, including John DowlandWilliam ByrdOrlando GibbonsThomas Weelkes and Thomas Morley were helping to bring the art of Elizabethan song to an extremely high musical level.

Elizabethan poems and plays were often written in iambic meters, based on a metrical foot of two syllables, one unstressed and one stressed. However, much metrical experimentation took place during the period, and many of the songs, in particular, departed widely from the iambic norm.

With the consolidation of Elizabeth's power, a genuine court sympathetic to poetry and the arts in general emerged. This encouraged the emergence of a poetry aimed at, and often set here, an idealised version of the courtly world. Among the best known examples of this are Edmund Spenser 's The Faerie Queenewhich is effectively an extended hymn of praise to the queen, and Philip Sidney 's Arcadia.

This courtly trend can also be seen in Spenser's Shepheardes Calender. This poem marks the introduction into an English context of the classical pastorala mode of poetry that assumes an aristocratic audience with a certain Nature In English Poetry Essay of attitude to the land and peasants.

The explorations of love found in the sonnets of William Shakespeare and the poetry of Walter Raleigh and others also implies a courtly audience. Virgil's AeneidThomas Campion's metrical experiments, and Spenser's Shepheardes Calender and plays like Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra are all examples of the influence of classicism on Elizabethan poetry.

Translations of classical poetry also became more widespread, with the versions of Ovid 's Metamorphoses by Arthur Golding —67 and George Sourceand Chapman's translations of Homer 's Iliad and Odyssey c.

English Renaissance poetry after the Elizabethan poetry can be seen as belonging to one of three strains; the Metaphysical poetsthe Cavalier poets and the school of Spenser.

However, the boundaries between these three groups are not always clear and an individual poet could write in more than one manner. Shakespeare also popularized the English sonnetwhich made significant changes to Petrarch 's model.

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A collection of by sonnetsdealing with themes such as the passage of time, love, beauty and mortality, were first published in a quarto. John Milton —74 is considered one of the greatest English poets, and wrote at a time of religious flux and political upheaval.

He is generally seen as the last major poet of the English Renaissance, though his most renowned epic poems were written in the Restoration period, including Paradise Lost Among the important poems Milton wrote during this period are L'Allegro; Il Penseroso; Comus a masque; and Lycidas Paradise Regained and Samson Agonistes are also highly regarded.

William Hayley 's biography called him the "greatest English author", [8] and he remains generally regarded "as one of the preeminent writers in the English language". The early 17th century saw the emergence of this group of poets who wrote in a witty, complicated style. The most famous of the Metaphysicals is probably John Donne.

John Milton in his Comus falls into this group. The Metaphysical poets went out of favour in the 18th century but began to be read read article in please click for source Victorian era.

Donne's reputation was finally fully restored by the approbation of T. Eliot in the early 20th century. Influenced by continental Baroqueand taking as his subject matter both Christian mysticism and eroticism, Donne's metaphysical poetry Nature In English Poetry Essay unconventional or "unpoetic" figures, such as a compass or a mosquito, to reach surprise effects.

For example, in "Valediction: Forbidding Mourning", one of Donne's Songs and Sonnetsthe points of a compass represent two lovers, the woman who is home, waiting, being the centre, the farther point being her lover sailing away from her. But the larger the distance, the more the hands of the compass lean to each other: The paradox or the oxymoron Nature In English Poetry Essay a constant in this poetry whose fears and anxieties also speak of a world of spiritual certainties shaken by the modern discoveries of geography and science, one that is no longer the centre of the universe.

Another important group of poets at this time were the Cavalier poets. The Cavalier poets wrote in a lighter, more elegant and artificial style than the Metaphysical poets.

They were an important group of writers, who came from the classes that supported King Charles I during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms — King Charles reigned from and was executed The Cavalier poets can be seen as the forerunners of the major poets of the Augustan erawho admired them greatly.

They "were not a formal group, but all were influenced" by Ben Jonson. For example, Robert Herrick was not a courtier, but his style marks him as a Cavalier poet. Cavalier works make use of allegory and classical allusions, and are influence by Latin authors HoraceCiceroand Ovid. John Milton 's Paradise Losta story of fallen pride, was the first major poem to appear in England after the Restoration.

The court of Charles II had, in its years in France, learned a worldliness and sophistication that marked it as distinctively different from the Homework East East Is that preceded the Republic.

Even if Charles had wanted to reassert the divine right of kingship, the Protestantism and taste for power of the intervening years would have rendered it impossible.

John Milton —74one of the greatest English poets, wrote at this time of religious flux and political upheaval. He is generally seen as the last major poet of the English Renaissance, though his major epic poems were written in the Restoration Nature In English Poetry Essay. Some of Milton's important poems, were written before the Restoration, including L'Allegro; Il Penseroso; Comus a masque; and Lycidas His later major works include Paradise Regained read more, and Samson Agonistesclick Milton's works reflect deep personal convictions, a passion for freedom and self-determination, and the urgent issues and political turbulence of his day.

Writing in English, Latin, and Italian, he achieved international renown within his lifetime, and his celebrated Areopagiticawritten in condemnation of pre-publication censorship, is among history's most influential and impassioned defences of free speech and freedom of the press.

The world of fashion and scepticism that emerged encouraged the art of satire. Their satire was often written in defence of public order and the established church and government. However, writers such as Pope used their gift for satire Nature In English Poetry Essay create scathing works responding to their Nature In English Poetry Essay or to criticise what they saw as social atrocities perpetrated by the government.

Pope's "The Dunciad" is a satirical slaying of two of his literary adversaries Lewis Theobald, and Colley Cibber in a later versionexpressing the view that British society was falling apart morally, culturally, and intellectually. The 18th century is sometimes called the Augustan age, and contemporary admiration for the classical world extended to the poetry of the time.