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How many times have you been in an argument that you knew you couldn't win? Are you reluctant to change your mind about certain social, political, or personal issues? Do you have an unshakable faith in a particular religion or philosophy? For example, are you absolutely certain that abortion learn more here immoral under all circumstances?
Are you categorically against animal experimentation for advancements in medicine? Do you believe that criminals who have tortured and killed people should receive the death penalty? Do you believe that parents should have no more than two children because of the world population problem? Do you believe it is your patriotic duty to buy solely American products?
Some of our beliefs and arguments are based on faith, some on emotion, and some on logic alone.
We all hold different religious, p olitical, and personal beliefs that largely define who we are and how we think. Within the past fifty years, as the size of our global village has appeared to shrink with the use of television, How To Write Rogerian Argument, and jets, we have become increasingly more sophisticated and knowledgable. As a result, most educated people now realize that few significant issues have simple solutions.
Thanks to modern scholarship and research, we have come to realize that our personalities and thoughts are shaped to some degree by cultural expectations. Philosophers have challenged us to recognize that our worlviews - our assumptions about reality, what is good, what is possible - are influenced by our day-to-day experiences. We have realized that truth is nt a fixed, static entity that can be carried into a battle like a banner.
One wonderful aspect of your go here career is meeting different worldviews through books and through discussions with people whom you otherwise would not encounter. Indeed, many college campuses offer a wonderful glimpse of the diversity of modern-day life. A wide-eyed glance at students at the university center on my campus, for instance, will show you Chinese students working alongside students from Africa and South America.
Young women dressed in their power suits mix freely with returning older adult students. Fraternity brothers rush from place to place, dressed in their blue blazers and short haircuts, while male musicians, dressed in the tie-dyed fashions of the s and shoulder-length hair, play guitars and sing protest songs. One result of our increasingly sophisticated world is that you cannot assume that your readers will believe or even understand everythinhg you say.
On the contrary, you need to assume that your readers will doubt you. They will question the validity of your evidence and test the logic of your conclusions. Modern readers tend to be particularly contentious when you insist on assertions that they find objectionable. Because of this shift in audience attitude, writers need to develop compelling ways of organizing and presenting arguments. No matter how thoroughly you go on to support your ideas with careful reasoning and to refute other claims such as those held by your audience respectfully, your readers have already decided to ignore you.
For example, can you imagine how your How To Write Rogerian Argument would respond if you remark that he or she is a terrible slob?
Even if you follow up your comment with photographs of the dirty dishes, cluttered rooms, and soild carpet left in his or her wake, can you imagine that the final outcome of your detailed presentation might be resolution?
More likely you will face anger, bitterness, and denial. Watch your introductory prepositions! Most of us tend to resist change and are threatened by ideas that challenge what we believe. Also, most of us dislike being told what to do and how to think, so even if our brains tell us to agree, our emotions and egos tell us to shut down and ignore what we are hearing. A male chauvinist who believes that women are intellectually inferior to men will be unlikely to listen to your argument that women are as intelligent as men.
Of course, you could hope that the chauvinist would change his mind over time when he wasn't being How To Write Rogerian Argument, yet you couldn't bet on this outcome.
Because conflict is inevitable, we need to seek creative ways to solve complicated problems and continue reading negotiate differences between opposing parties.
Although there are no simple formulas for bringing opposing factions together, we do have a relatively new form of communication founded on Carl Rogers's client-centered therapeutic approach to one-on-one and group counseling. Essentially, the Rogerian problem-solving approach reconceptualizes our goals when we argue. Instead of assuming that an author or speaker shoudl hope to overcome an antagonistic audience with shrewd reasoning, the Rogerian approach would have the author or speaker attempt to How To Write Rogerian Argument some common ground with the audience.
Thus, in a very real way, Rogerian "persuasion" is not a form of persuasion so much as it is a way of opening communication for negotiating common ground between divergent points of view.
In terms of writing, How To Write Rogerian Argument coud say that the Rogerian approach melds the techniques of informative analyses with those of persuasive reports. Instead, you explore ways that will allow both you and your audience to win.
Rogerian argument is often difficult for students to understand because it asks them to think about controversial topics in a different way: Inthe psychologist Carl Rogers gave a talk at the Centennial Conference on Communications at Northwestern University that changed the way we think about argument.
Psychology at that time was dominated by psychologists like B. Skinner, who were learning to scientifically condition thoughts and feelings in the same way that Pavlov had conditioned his dogs to salivate at the sound of their dinner bell a half-century before.
Wondering how to write a Rogerian argument? Consider these 6 things or request professional essay writing help at cocktail24.info Rogerian essay writing guide for students, cocktail24.info The key to finding an effective solution to a conflicting problem between two parties or individuals is touching on a 'common ground' through communication, and a. Use this site to write, learn to write, Rogerian argument is especially dependent on audience analysis because the writer must present the reader's perspective.
Rogers, on the other hand, was a humanist. He believed that human speech and human cognition were interrelated and that the success or failure of one was related to the success or failure of the other. Its Blocking and Its Facilitation," he put forward as the cornerstone of his practice the belief that "the whole task of psychotherapy is the task of dealing with a failure in communication" According to Rogers, the principle difficulty preventing people from settling their differences, indeed from communicating effectively in an everyday sense, was that people couldn't stop evaluating one another.
The more important a topic was to them, the more emotional the participants in a discussion became, and the more they were apt to judge How To Write Rogerian Argument the other person was saying rather than giving it the best hearing they could. In short, Rogers noticed that when people argue, they tend to make judgments about their opponents' positions before they really understand them.
What is Rogerian Argument?
Rogers's goal, then, was to avoid this tendency to constantly evaluate and instead to "listen with understanding. It means to see the expressed idea and attitude from the other person's point of view, to sense how it feels to him, to achieve his frame of reference in regard to the thing he is talking about" Rogers Rogers himself How To Write Rogerian Argument barriers to this kind of understanding.
First and foremost, you have to be willing to try it, and not many people are. Rogers's approach seems like you're giving ground to your opponents and, what's worse, sometimes you actually are. It is important to note, though, that this sort of Rogerian understanding is also itself an argumentative tactic.
First, people will almost always refuse to consider something if they feel threatened by it, and How To Write Rogerian Argument understanding reduces the threat to the opposition. Second, people reciprocate; they tend to treat others as they are treated by them. Despite the initial difficulties, then, each new understanding of the opponent's view makes the next easier, while at the same time inviting, even obligating, the opponent to strive for a like understanding.
These defensive distortions drop away with astonishing speed Professional Annotated Bibliography Editing Sites Us people find that the only intent is to understand, not judge" Rogers This Rogerian process started to make its way into textbooks in Becker, and Kenneth L.
Pike's introduction of Rogerian psychology in their book Rhetoric: Discovery and Change seeks to simplify some of Rogers's terminology and begin to present the process as a set of rhetorical objectives: Article source like this, in such a simple and reductive way, the process of attaining and expressing Rogerian understanding seems almost easy.
It is important to note that these are not developmental steps intended as heuristics, that indeed there are no sequential stages to a Rogerian argument. They are instead How To Write Rogerian Argument to be pursued independently and recursively with the probably effect of facilitating communication. As Young, Becker, and Pike write, "Rogerian argument has no conventional structure; in fact, users of the strategy deliberately avoid conventional persuasive structures and techniques because these devices tend to produce a sense of threat.
The danger of argumentative form becoming an exclusionary force, silencing rather than evoking discussion, is therefore greatly reduced. At this point, then, you may be wondering what Rogerian argument might actually look like in terms of an essay for a composition class. An essay modeled on Rogers's approach should include a few particular parts:.
In order for you to write/make a good Rogerian argument in your essay, it is important to keep in mind some important outlines and pointers as well keeping in mind. Are you confused about how to write a Rogerian essay? Do you even know what a Rogerian essay is? Don't worry, I'll give you some tips to help you. A successful Rogerian argument essay structure spends time discussing opposing positions. This is what sets the Rogerian essay apart from other types of papers. Rogerian argument is often Are there any major differences in belief that I could bridge by communicating with him or her in a Rogerian way? Do I want to write. A Rogerian essay, named for psychologist Carl Rogers, is among the hardest forms of essays to write. Rather than being aimed at a comprehensive win, it is designed at.
Below are some of the strategies that you can use to negotiate consensus between In Php A Blog Write parties.
As usual, you should not consider the following to be a rigid formula. Instead, pick and choose from these strategies in light of your audience, purpose, and intended voice. In the introduction, identify the issue and clarify its significance. Because you need to adopt a nonthreatening persona throughout your essay, however, avoid dogmatically presenting your view as the best or only way to solve the problem.
Unlike your strategy for shaping a conventional persuasive text, at this point in your discussion you will not want to lay your cards on the table and summarize your presentation. Instead, explain the scope and complexity of the issue. You might want to mention the various approaches that people have taken to solve the problemandf perhaps even suggest that the issue is so complicated that the best you and your readers can hope for is consensus - or agreement on some aspect of How To Write Rogerian Argument matter.
In your introduction and throughout your essay, you will want to explain the problem in ways that will make your audience say, "Yes, this author understands my position. Of course, this tactic is effective only when you can indeed follow through and be as original as possible in your treatment of the subject. Otherwise, your readers may reject your ideas because they recognize that you have misrepresented yourself.
Rather than masking your thoughts behind an "objective persona," the Rogerian approach allows you to express your true feelings. However, if you are to meet the ideals of Rogerian communication, you need to challenge your own beliefs; you must be so open-minded that you truly entertain the possibility that your ideas are wrong, or at least not absolutely right. According to Rogers, you must "run the risk of being changed yourself. In this part of your argument you will want to elaborate on which of your opponent's claims about the problem are correct.
For example, if your roommate's messiness is driving you crazy but you still want to live with him or her, stress that cleanliness is not the be-all-and-end-all of human life. Commend your roommate for helping you How To Write Rogerian Argument on your studies and express appreciation for all of the times that he or she has pitched in to clean up. And, of course, you would also want to admit to a few annoying habits of your own, such as taking thirty-minute showers or talking on your cell phone late at night while your roommate is trying to sleep!
After viewing the problem from your roommate's perspective, you might even be willing to explore how your problem with compulsive neatness is itself a problem. Once you have identified the problem in as nonthreatening a way as possible, established a fair-minded persona, and called for some level of consensus based on a "higher" interest, you have reached the most important stage in Rogerian negotiation: At this point in your argument, you do not want to slap down a "But!