It How To Write Names In Kanji one type of ruby text.
In modern Japanese, it is mostly read more to gloss rare kanji, to clarify rare, nonstandard or ambiguous kanji readings, or in children's or learners' materials.
Before the post-World War II script reformsit was more widespread. Furigana is most often written in hiraganathough katakanaalphabet letters or other kanji can also be used in certain special cases. In vertical text, tategakithe furigana is placed to the right of the line of text; in horizontal text, yokogakiit is placed above the line of text, as illustrated below.
These examples spell the word kanjiwhich is made up of two kanji characters: Furigana may be added by character, in which case the furigana characters that correspond to a kanji are centered over that kanji; or by word or phrase, in which case the entire furigana word is centered over several kanji characters, go here if the kanji do not represent equal shares of the kana needed to write them.
The latter method is more common, especially since some words in Japanese have unique pronunciations jukujikun that are not related to readings of any of the characters the word is written with. Furigana fonts are generally sized so that two kana characters fit naturally over one kanji; when more kana are required, this is resolved either by adjusting the furigana by using a condensed font narrowing the kanaor by adjusting the kanji by intercharacter spacing adding spaces around the kanji.
These cause severe spacing problems due to length and these words being used as units hence closely associated to the preceding figure. When it is necessary to distinguish between native Japanese kun'yomi and Chinese -derived on'yomi pronunciations, for example in Kanji dictionariesthe Japanese pronunciations are written in hiraganaand the Chinese pronunciations are written in katakana.
However, this distinction is really only important in dictionaries and other reference works.
In ordinary prose, the script chosen will usually be hiragana. The one general exception to this is modern Chinese place names, personal names, and occasionally food names—these will often be written with kanji, and katakana used for the furigana; in more casual writing these are simply written in katakana, as borrowed words. Occasionally this style is also used for loanwords from other source especially English.
Generally, though, such loanwords How To Write Names In Kanji just written in straight katakana. The distinction between regular kana and the smaller character forms, which are used in regular orthography to mark such things as gemination and palatalizationis often not made in furigana: This was especially common in old-fashioned How To Write Names In Kanji type printing when smaller fonts were not available.
Nowadays, with computer-based printing systems, this occurs less frequently. Furigana are most commonly used in works for children, who may not have sufficiently advanced reading skills to recognize the kanji, but can understand the word when written phonetically in hiragana. Because children learn hiragana before katakanain books for very young children, there are hiragana furigana next to the katakana characters.
It is common to use furigana on all kanji characters in works for young children. Numeric characters used for counting eg.
Numeric words in established compounds eg. Seinen and josei manga ignores furigana most of the time, even on the names of the characters if they're common names. There are also books with a phonetic guide mainly in hiragana but sometimes in romaji for Japanese learners, which may be bilingual or Japanese only. These are popular with foreigners wishing to master Japanese faster and enjoy reading Japanese short stories, novels or articles.
Furigana unrelated to the kanji they're assigned to are quite often used to convey certain effects, rather than to denote a phonetic guide, especially in manga, anime and games. Some authors may even use furigana that How To Write Names In Kanji the opposite of what the base text does to reinforce an effect, such as the complicated relationship between characters.
Some manga make use of the furigana renditions of foreign words especially obscure ones as the intended reading of a term, and the more familiar kanji for the meaning of such a term. Some websites and tools exist which provide a phonetic guide for Japanese web pages in hiragana, romaji or kiriji ; these are popular with both Japanese children and foreign Japanese learners. Furigana commonly appear alongside kanji names and their romanizations on signs for railway stations, even if the pronunciation of the kanji is commonly known.
Furigana also appear often on maps to show the pronunciation of unusual place names. Before the war, youths might arguably have been almost illiterate if not for furigana. Japanese names are usually written in kanji. Because there are many possible readings for kanji names, including special name-only readings called nanorifurigana are often used to give the read article of names.
On Japanese official forms, where the name is to be written, there is always an adjacent column for the name to be written in furigana. Usually katakana is preferred.
Furigana may also be used for foreign names written in kanji. Chinese and Korean names are the click common examples: Chinese names are usually pronounced with Japanese readings and the pronunciation written in hiragana, while Korean names are usually pronounced with Korean readings and the pronunciation written in katakana.
5 Basic Rules of Writing Kanji
Furigana may also be necessary in the rare case where names are transliterated into kanji from other languages e. Kanji and kanji compounds are often presented with furigana in Japanese language textbooks for non-native speakers. Furigana are also often used in foreign language textbooks for Japanese learners to indicate pronunciation. The words are written in the original foreign script, such as hangul for Koreanand furigana is used to indicate the pronunciation.
According to Ministry of Education guidelines, and the opinions of educators, the use of Japanese furigana should be avoided in English teaching due to the differences in pronunciation between English and Japanese. Some writers use furigana to represent slang pronunciations, particularly those that would become hard to understand without the kanji to provide their meaning.
This means that the actual word used was "that", but the kanji clarify for the reader what "that" refers to. In karaoke it is extremely common for furigana to be placed on the song lyrics. The song lyrics are How To Write Names In Kanji written in kanji pronounced quite differently from the furigana.
The furigana version is used for pronunciation. Also, because the kanji represent meaning while the furigana represent sound, one can combine the two to create puns or indicate meanings of foreign words.
One might write the kanji for "blue", but use katakana to write the pronunciation of the English word "blue"; this may be done, for example, in Japanese subtitles on foreign films, where it can help associate the written Japanese with the sounds actually being spoken by the actors, or it may be used in a translation of a work of fiction to enable the translator to preserve the original sound of a proper name such as "Firebolt" in the Harry Potter series in furigana, while simultaneously article source its meaning with kanji.
A similar practice is used in native fiction to clarify extended meanings. To clarify that for the reader, the word furusato hometown might be written in hiragana over the kanji for chikyuu Earth.
Okurigana are kana that appear inline at normal size following kanji stems, typically to complete and to inflect adjectives and verbs. Unlike furigana, the use of okurigana is a mandatory part of the written language. In the written style known as kanbunwhich is the Japanese approximation of Classical Chinesesmall marks called kunten are sometimes added as reading aids.
Unlike furigana, which indicate pronunciation, kunten indicate Japanese grammatical structures absent from the kanbunas well as showing how words should be reordered to fit Japanese sentence structure. Furigana are sometimes also used to indicate meaning, rather than pronunciation. Over the foreign text, smaller sized Japanese words, in kana or kanji, corresponding to the meaning How To Write Names In Kanji the foreign words, effectively translate it in place.
While rare now, some late 19th—early 20th century authors used kanji as furigana for loanwords written in katakana. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Japanese writing Components Kanji. Japanese punctuation Iteration mark. One today is worth two tomorrows. The Ancient Magus' Bride. University of Hawaii Press.
Gifu Prefectural Board of Education. Retrieved 3 May Kanbun Kanji by concept by stroke count Kanji radicals by frequency by stroke count. Pitch accent Sound symbolism Rendaku. Books Poetry Writers Classical Japanese texts. Retrieved from " https: Japanese writing system Japanese writing system terms Kana Ruby characters.
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There are two ways to write your name in Japanese. And one of them is wrong. Japanese has a writing system consisting of two ways of writing, kanji and two forms of kana, hiragana and katakana. Japanese people usually write their names using. The last and most notorious aspect of the Japanese written language is Kanji, which are Chinese characters adapted for Japanese. Most words in Japanese are written in. Furigana (振り仮名) is a Japanese reading aid, consisting of smaller kana, or syllabic characters, printed next to a kanji (ideographic character) or other. Kanji (漢字; Japanese pronunciation: listen) are the adopted logographic Chinese characters, that are used in the Japanese writing system. They are used alongside.