Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity.
Depending on the context, these characteristics may include biological sex i. Some cultures have specific gender roles that are distinct from male and female, such as the hijras of South Asia.
These are often referred to as third gender. Sexologist John Money introduced the terminological distinction between click sex and gender as a role in Before his work, it was uncommon to use the word gender to refer to anything but grammatical categories.
Today the distinction is strictly followed in some contexts, especially the social sciences   and documents written by the World Health Organization WHO.
In other contexts, including some areas of social sciences, gender includes sex or replaces it. The social sciences have a branch devoted to gender studies. Other sciences, such as sexology and neuroscienceare also interested in the subject. While the social sciences sometimes approach gender as a social constructand gender studies particularly do, research in the natural sciences investigates whether biological differences Help Me Write Women And Gender Studies Paper males and females influence link development of gender in humans; both inform debate about how far biological differences influence the formation of gender identity.
In the English literature, there is also a trichotomy between biological sex, psychological gender, and social gender role. This framework first appeared in a feminist paper on transsexualism in The modern English word gender comes from the Middle English gender also genderegendir gendyrgendrea loanword from Anglo-Norman and Middle French gendre. This, in turn, came from Latin genus. Both words mean "kind", "type", or "sort". They derive ultimately from a widely attested Proto-Indo-European PIE root g e n-  which is also the source of kinkindthis web pageand many other English words.
The first edition of the Oxford English Dictionary OED1, Volume 4, notes the original meaning of gender as "kind" had Help Me Write Women And Gender Studies Paper become obsolete.
The word was still widely attested, however, in the specific sense of grammatical gender the assignment of nouns to categories such as masculinefeminine and neuter. According to Aristotlethis concept was introduced by the Greek philosopher Protagoras.
InHenry Watson Fowler stated that the definition of the word pertains to this grammar-related meaning:. To talk of persons The theory was that human nature is essentially epicene and social distinctions based on sex are arbitrarily constructed. Matters pertaining to this theoretical process of social construction were labelled matters of gender.
The popular use of gender simply as an alternative to sex as a biological category is also widespread, although attempts are still made to preserve the distinction. The American Heritage Dictionary uses the following two sentences to illustrate the difference, noting that the distinction "is useful in principle, but it is by no means widely observed, and considerable variation in usage occurs at all levels.
The effectiveness of the medication appears to depend on the sex not gender of the patient. In peasant societies, gender not sex roles are likely to be more clearly defined. In the last two decades of the 20th century, the use of gender in academia has increased greatly, outnumbering uses of sex in the social sciences. While the spread of the word in science publications can be attributed to the influence of feminism, its use as a synonym for sex is attributed to the Help Me Write Women And Gender Studies Paper to grasp the distinction made in feminist theory, and the distinction has sometimes become blurred with the theory itself; David Haig stated, "Among the reasons that working scientists have given me for choosing gender rather than sex in biological contexts are desires to signal sympathy with feminist goals, to use a more academic term, or to avoid the connotation of copulation.
In legal cases alleging discriminationsex is usually preferred as the determining factor rather than gender as it refers to biology rather than socially constructed norms which are more open to interpretation and dispute. That is to say, gender is to sex as feminine is to female and masculine is to male. Gender identity refers to a personal identification check this out a particular gender and gender role in society.
The term Help Me Write Women And Gender Studies Paper has historically been used interchangeably with reference to the female body, though more recently this usage has been viewed as controversial by some feminists.
There are qualitative analyses that explore and present the representations of gender; however, feminists challenge these dominant ideologies concerning gender roles and biological sex.
One's biological sex is directly tied to specific social roles and the expectations.
In Search of Women and Gender Studies
Judith Butler considers the concept of being a woman to have more challenges, owing not only to society's viewing women as a social category but also as a felt sense of self, a culturally conditioned or constructed subjective identity.
The groups people belong to therefore provide members with the definition of who they are and how they should behave within their social sphere. Categorizing males and females into social roles creates a problem, because individuals feel they have to be at one end of a linear spectrum and must identify themselves as man or woman, rather than being allowed to choose a section in between.
The gender system is the basis of social patterns in many societies, which include the separation of sexes, and the primacy of masculine norms. Philosopher Michel Foucault said that as sexual subjects, humans are the object of power, which is not an institution or structure, rather it is a signifier or name attributed to "complex strategical situation".
Such as, being female characterizes one as a woman, and being a woman signifies one as weak, emotional, and irrational, and is incapable of actions attributed to a "man".
Butler said that gender and sex are more like verbs than nouns. She reasoned that her actions are limited because she is female. Rather than 'woman' being something one is, it is something one does. According to gender theorist Kate Bornsteingender can have ambiguity and fluidity. The World Health Organization defines gender as the result of socially constructed ideas about the behavior, actions, and roles a particular sex performs.
The assignment of gender involves taking into account the physiological and biological attributes assigned by nature followed by the imposition of the socially constructed conduct. The social label of being classified into one or the other sex is necessary for the medical stamp on birth certificates.
Gender is a term used to exemplify the attributes that a society or culture constitutes as "masculine" or "feminine". Although a person's sex as male or female stands as a biological fact that is identical in any culture, what that specific sex means in reference to a person's gender role as a woman or a man in society varies cross culturally according Help Me Write Women And Gender Studies Paper what things Help Me Write Women And Gender Studies Paper considered to be masculine or feminine.
It is also important to note that learning gender roles starts from birth and includes seemingly simple things like what color outfits a baby is clothed in or what toys they are given to play with. The cultural traits typically coupled to a particular sex finalize the assignment of Help Me Write Women And Gender Studies Paper and the biological differences which play a role in classifying either sex as interchangeable with the definition of gender within the social context.
In this context, the socially constructed rules are at a cross road with the assignment of a particular gender to a person. Gender ambiguity deals with having the freedom to choose, manipulate and create a personal niche within any defined socially constructed code of conduct while gender fluidity is outlawing all the rules of cultural gender assignment.
It does not accept the prevalence of the two rigidly defined genders "man" and "woman" and believes in freedom to choose any kind of gender with no rules, no defined boundaries and no fulfilling of expectations associated with any particular gender. Both these definitions are facing opposite directions with their own defined set of rules and criteria on which the said systems are based.
Sexologist John Money coined the term gender role in The term gender role is defined as the actions or responses that may reveal their status as boy, man, girl or woman, respectively.
In contrast to taxonomic approaches, some feminist philosophers have argued that gender "is a vast orchestration of subtle mediations between oneself and others", rather than a "private cause behind manifest behaviours".
Because social aspects of gender can normally be presumed to be the ones of interest in sociology and closely related learn more here, gender role is often abbreviated to gender in their literature. Traditionally, most societies have only recognized two distinct, broad classes of gender roles, masculine and feminine, that correspond with the biological sexes of male and female.
When a baby is born, society allocates the child to one gender or the other, on the basis of what their genitals resemble. Other societies include well-developed roles that are explicitly considered more or less distinct from archetypal female and male roles in those societies. In the language of the sociology of genderthey comprise a third gender more or less distinct from biological sex sometimes the basis for the role does include intersexuality or incorporates eunuchs.
In addition to these traditionally recognized third genders, many cultures now recognize, to differing degrees, various non-binary gender identities. People who are non-binary or Help Me Write Women And Gender Studies Paper have gender identities that are go here exclusively masculine or feminine. They may identify as having an overlap of gender identities, having two or more genders, having no gender, having a fluctuating gender identity, or being third gender or other-gendered.
Recognition of non-binary genders is still somewhat new to mainstream Western culture,  and non-binary people may face increased risk of assault, harassment, and discrimination. Joan Roughgarden argues that some non-human animal species also have more than two genders, in that there might be multiple templates for behavior available to individual organisms with a given biological sex. Early gender identity research hypothesized a single bipolar dimension of masculinity-femininity, with masculinity and femininity being opposites on one continuum.
Assumptions of the unidimensional model were challenged as societal stereotypes changed, which led to the development of a two-dimensional gender identity model.
In the model, masculinity and femininity were conceptualized as two separate and orthogonal dimensions, coexisting in varying degrees within an individual. This conceptualization on femininity and masculinity remains the accepted standard today.
Two instruments incorporating the multidimensional nature of masculinity and femininity have dominated gender identity research: Both instruments categorize individuals as either being sex typed males report themselves as identifying primarily with masculine traits, females report themselves as identifying primarily with feminine traitscross sex-typed males report themselves as identifying primarily with feminine traits, females report themselves as identifying primarily with masculine traitsandrogynous either males or females who report themselves as high on both masculine and feminine traits or undifferentiated either males or females who report themselves as low on both masculine and feminine traits.
Biologist and feminist academic Anne Fausto-Sterling rejects the discourse of biological versus social determinism and advocates a deeper analysis of how interactions between the biological being and the social environment influence individuals' capacities.
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However, it may be analyzed in terms of biology—a girl must pass puberty to become a woman—and sociology, as a great deal of mature relating in social contexts is learned rather than instinctive.
Within feminist theoryterminology for gender issues developed over the s. In gender studies the term gender refers to proposed social and cultural constructions of masculinities and femininities.
In this context, gender explicitly excludes reference to biological differences, to focus on cultural differences. Those who followed Butler came to regard gender roles as a practice, sometimes referred to as " performative ". Hurst states that some people think sex will, " For example, Michael Schwalbe believes that humans must be taught how to act appropriately in their designated gender to fill the role properly, and that the way people behave as masculine or feminine interacts with social expectations.
Schwalbe comments that humans "are the results of many people embracing and acting on similar ideas".
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Schwalbe believes that these distinctions are important, because society wants to identify and categorize people as soon as we see them. They need to place people into distinct categories to know how we should feel about them.
Hurst comments that in a society where we present our genders so distinctly, there can often be severe consequences article source breaking these cultural norms. Many of these consequences are rooted in discrimination based Help Me Write Women And Gender Studies Paper sexual orientation. Gays and lesbians are often discriminated against in our legal system because of societal prejudices.
He says that "courts often confuse sex, gender, and sexual orientation, and confuse them in a way that results in denying the rights not only of gays and lesbians, but also of those who do not present themselves or act in a manner traditionally expected of their sex".
Andrea Dworkin stated her "commitment to destroying male dominance and gender itself" while stating her belief in radical feminism. Political scientist Mary Hawkesworth addresses gender and feminist theory, stating that since the s the concept of gender has transformed and been used in significantly different ways within feminist scholarship. She notes that a transition occurred when several feminist scholars, such as Sandra Harding and Joan Scottbegan to conceive of gender "as an analytic category within which humans think about and organize their social activity".
Feminist scholars in Political Science began employing gender as an analytical category, which highlighted "social and political relations neglected by mainstream accounts". However, Hawkesworth states "feminist political science has not become a dominant paradigm within the discipline".
Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity. Depending on the context, these characteristics may. I'm the developer of RimWorld. The author of this anger-farming hit piece did email me asking if she could ask me some questions. However, she wanted to edit my. 1) With reference to ‘stand up India scheme’, which of the following statement is/are correct? Its purpose is to promote entrepreneurship among SC/ST and women. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples.
American political scientist Karen Beckwith addresses the concept of gender within political science arguing that a "common language of gender" exists and that it must be explicitly articulated in order to build upon it within the political science discipline. Beckwith describes two ways in which the political scientist may employ 'gender' when conducting empirical research: It may also demonstrate how gender differences, not necessarily corresponding precisely with sex, may "constrain or facilitate political" actors.