Essays On The Bombing Of Pearl Harbor - The best estimate professional

enoughOn December 7, one of the worst attacks ever on the Click States occurred. More than 3, people lost their lives or were injured that morning, and the attack propelled us into war against the Axis Alliance.

Through the misjudgement of numerous U. Inthe United States government obtained exclusive use of the inlet called Pearl Harbor, and the right to maintain a repair and coaling station for ships. The area was established as a naval base inthen in dredging of a channel from the sea was completed, across a sandbar and a coral reef at the mouth of the harbor.

This made that channel accessible to the largest naval vessels, as it was now 35 feet deep, with a maximum depth of 60 feet.

During the Japanese attack, this center for United States military action in the Pacific Ocean was nearly completely destroyed.

Between the middle of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries, Japan looked to transform itself from a closed, feudal society into a modern industrial and military power.

In the early 's, the Japanese army engaged in battles with the Chinese in Manchuria and prevailed. Because of their losses in these battles, Manchuria became a part of the Japanese political system. Inconflict again began between Japan and China, this time near the Marco Polo see more in Beijing.

This conflict led to a full-scale war known today as the Sino-Japanese War, which was one of the bloodiest in history and lasted until the defeat of Japan in These successes included the defeats of Poland, France and England. Many European nations that Germany now controlled had control of important colonial empires; the East Indies and Singapore in Southeast Asia.

These empires were of interest to Japan because they had the natural resources oil, coal, rubber and tin that Japan desperately neaded. Japan began their expansion with the seizure of Indochina in mid Roosevelt was in strict opposition, but many others in America wanted to leave the situation alone.

So the United States provided materials to countries who were at war with Germany and Japan, but tried to stay neutral and prevent war. This was not effective, however and President Roosevelt created an embargo on the shipment of oil to Japan. Without this critical resource, Japan's industrial and military forces would Essays On The Bombing Of Pearl Harbor come to a halt, so they viewed the embargo as an act of war.

Things were beginning to look worse for the United States. Officials in the United States tried to come to a resolve with Japan over their differences.

Japan wanted America to lift the embargo and allow them to take over China. The United States refused to do either, and saw Japan's refusal to budge on their stance as a sign of hostility. Because of neither nation's willingness to compromise, it seemed that war was now inevitable. The most powerful and important part of the United States' defense in the Pacific Ocean was the Pacific Fleet, which was usually on the west coast but made a training cruise to Hawaii every year.

Because of the overshadow of war at the Essays On The Bombing Of Pearl Harbor of its training cruise inthe fleet was moved to Pearl Harbor naval base. This was a perfect location because it was halfway between the U. However, Essays On The Bombing Of Pearl Harbor plan was seriously altered because of the increasing activity in Italy and Japan's attempts to expand in Southeast Asia.

President Roosevelt's theory was that the presence of United States forces in Hawaii would deter any Japanese attempt at a strike on American forces. Richardson of the Pacific Fleet was in complete opposition to the proposed long stay at Pearl Harbor. However, when Admiral Stark suggested to him the idea of anti-torpedo nets, after British torpedo bombers launched an attack on Taranto Harbor in Italy, he thought they were neither practical nor necessary. Unfortunately, all of Richardson's protests and meetings with the president only got him dismissed and in February of he was officially replaced by Admiral Husband E.

Kimmel also didn't go here the idea of his fleet in Pearl Harbor, but kept his objections to himself after seeing what had happened to Richardson.

The Pacific Fleet was to be used as a defensive measure to Essays On The Bombing Of Pearl Harbor Japan's attention away from Southeast Asia by:. Because of the United States' presence in the Pacific, Japanese Admiral Yamamoto, commander-in-chief of his country's Combined Fleet needed to be careful of his positions there. If he allowed his forces to be too concentrated, the mainland was susceptible to and attack from a European nation or America.

Yamamoto created a plan which involved a strong opening blow to the U. Pacific Fleet, and offensive source against the British, U. His main purpose was to cripple the United States while he quickly gathered the natural resources of Southeast Asia. He hoped that his Essays On The Bombing Of Pearl Harbor attack would demoralize American forces and require us to sign a peace settlement, thus allowing Japan to remain as the strongest power in the Pacific.

Only one month after the British attack on Taranto Harbor, Yamamoto reasoned that if war was inevitable with the United States he would launch a carrier attack on Pearl Harbor. In January ofYamamoto began to commit to his strategy, planning the attack and showing it to other Japanese officials. He developed eight guidelines for the attack, and they are as follows:. General staff members were in opposition to the attack but continued preparations despite their knowledge that the attack would be difficult.

Secrecy and surprise were the two most important elements to the success of the Japanese plan. However, the flow of information around the Japanese Imperial Naval staff was not completely secure. On January 27, Joseph C. Grew, the United States Ambassador to Japan wired Washington that he had discovered information that Japan, in the event of problems with the United States, would plan a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor. Unfortunately, no one in Washington believed this information, but if someone had, it is possible that the terrible attack could have been prevented.

During this time period, American intelligence officers continued to monitor secret Japanese messages. American scientists had previously developed a machine, whose code name was "magic," that gave intelligence officers the ability to read top secret Japanese message traffic.

Japanese consular traffic was also intercepted, which provided the United States with even more important information. Although America had enough essential information to paint itself a crystal-clear picture of Japanese intentions, there was an internal struggle between the Office of Naval Intelligence and the War Plans Division, and the information was lost in the shuffle. In Japan, Admiral Nomura informed his superiors that he thought Americans were reading his message traffic, but no one believed him and their code was not changed.

In addition to listening in on Japanese message traffic, the United States also knew that Hawaii was full of Japanese intelligence officers. Because of our constitutional rights however, very little could be done.

One such spy was Takeo Yoshikawa. Yoshikawa was a Japanese naval reserve ensign.

He retired after only two years of service, then contemplated suicide. The navy offered him a job with its general staff's intelligence division, and over the next four years Yoshikawa studied English as well as the Pacific Fleet in Pearl Harbor.

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Wisely, he did not overuse any one observation post or method as he carefully watched goings on in Pearl Harbor and Hickam Airfield. He used many different costumes during his spying years, but never illegally entered military bases or stole confidential documents. Due to American openness, he received nearly all the information he needed by legal methods.

He turned out to be one of the best sources of information for the Japanese military, but at the end of his career received neither honors nor pension, and was left asking, "Why has history cheated me?

As the United States began to fear more and more the Japanese attack, they increased peace negotiations, which occurred up until about November 27, At this time negotiations completely halted and United States troops were put on high alert. Late the same day American intelligence officers decoded thirteen parts of a fourteen part message which brought forth the possibility of a Japanese attack.

One hour later a Japanese message was decoded, instructing their embassy to deliver the same part message at 1: Upon receiving this message, Washington sent a commercial telegraph to Pearl Harbor because communications were down. However, this message was not received until noon Hawaiian time, three hours after the bombing had been completed. At this time, Pearl Harbor was not on a state of high alert.

Senior commanders had concluded that there was no reason to believe an attack in the near future is inevitable.

For this reason, aircraft were left parked wingtip to wingtip on airfields, anti-aircraft guns remained unmanned, and many ammunition boxes stayed locked in storage in accordance with American peacetime regulations.

There were no torpedo nets protecting the Pacific Fleet anchorage. Because the 7th of December was a Sunday and it was early in the morning, most officers and crewmen were leisurely ashore. The Americans were taken completely by surprise by the attack.

The attacking Japanese planes came in two waves, the first of which took off from carriers located north of Oahu around 6: This wave consisted of fighters, bombers and torpedo planes.

That you Essays On The Bombing Of Pearl Harbor remember the

The previous night, about 10 miles outside the entrance to Pearl Harbor, five midget submarines were launched, each carrying two men and two torpedoes. It was their mission to remain submerged and once the attack got underway, cause as much damage as possible. Meanwhile in Pearl Harbor, the vessels of the Pacific Fleet sat calmly. In the event that followed, thousands of lives were lost, as well as incredible amounts of American naval property.

The submarine was by depth charges and gunfire, and Ward radioed the news to headquarters. Meanwhile the attack leader, Commander Mitsuo Fuchida was sending coded messages "Tora, Tora, Tora," informing the fleet that the attack had begun and that absolute surprise had been attained.

During this attack, Hickam Airfield's mess hall received a direct hit, killing 35 men who were having breakfast. While the attack on the harbor grew increasingly intense, many other United States military installations on Oahu were hit. After about five minutes, American anti-aircraft fire began to register hits, but they did not amount to much of a resistance. After a short pause, like in the eye of a hurricane, the second attacking wave reached its targets of ships and shipyard facilities at 8: This attack brought continued destruction, and reduced the American's ability to retaliate.

Essays On The Bombing Of Pearl Harbor, Army Air Corps pilots managed to take off in see more few fighters, and may have shot down up to ten enemy planes, but this was obviously Essays On The Bombing Of Pearl Harbor little too late.

This created a catastrophic explosion, which ripped apart the ship's sides. Within nine minutes click here ship was sunk, taking with her 1, lives, a near complete loss. The USS Oklahoma was also hit by several torpedoes and completely rolled over, trapping inside over four hundred crew members.

One surviving crew member of the USS Arizona relives his nightmare:. I could hear shrapnel or fragments whistling past me. As soon as I reached the first platform, I saw Lieutenant Simonson lying on his back with blood on his shirt front. I bent over him and taking him by the shoulders asked if there was anything I could do.

He was dead, or so nearly so that speech was impossible.

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