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Essays in the New Urban History 2. Research on the frontiers of urban studies was the subject of a conference on nineteenth-century cities held in November at Yale University.
These papers from the conference attempt to define what is coming to be known as the "new urban history. While the majority of the contributions deal with American cities, four essays examine cities in Canada, England, France, and Colombia. The studies focus on the dimensions of mobility and stability in the social structure of nineteenth-century cities. Within this general frame, the essays explore such areas as urban patterns of class stratification, changing rates of occupational and residential mobility, social origins of particular elite groups, the relations between political control and social class, differences in opportunities for various ethnic groups, and the relationships between family structure and city life.
In all these fields, the authors relate sociological theory to the historical materials; a complex yet readable, interdisciplinary portrait of the origins of modern city life Essays In The New Urban History the result. Paperbackpages. Published March 11th by Yale University Press first published To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up.
To ask other readers questions about Nineteenth-Century Citiesplease sign up. Be the first to ask a question about Nineteenth-Century Cities. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Mar 26, Brittany Bond added it Shelves: This review has been hidden because it contains spoilers. To view it, click here. The Glassworkers of Carmaux, Joan W. Scott p Working-class unrest in the early stages of industrialization is attributed to the dislocation experienced in the move click rural to Essays In The New Urban History areas, in the change from self-disciplined domestic labor to standardized norms of factory work, in the loss of traditional social institutions family, religion and the lack of any replacement for them.
This is essentially the view of American sociologists like Kerr, Smelser, and Hauers, and of http://cocktail24.info/blog/help-with-essays-for.php classes and 'dangerous classes' began to merge in nineteenth-century Paris, as lonely men arrived and floundered in the chaos of the large city. For Lorwin, early working-class protest in Western Europe comes from economic dislocations, and he sees the occupations most prone to radicalism as those that are least stable and most isolated from 'normal' social life.
Thernstrom attributes the absence of organized working-class protest in Newburyport, MA to a high incidence of property mobility. An extension and refinement of the argument goes beyond the Police Commissioner's equation of land-ownership and stability, maintaining instead that some form of 'integration' into city life is a prerequisite for 'normal' or stable conditions.
Usually the argument goes the other way- the absence of integrative institutions is seen as a factor to working-class unrest.
Exploring The Urban Past Essays In Urban History By H J Dyos
The Effect of Craft and Ethnic Differences in Poughkeepsie, New York, Clyde Griffen p Quantitative studies based on federal or state censuses can bring these differences to the historian's attention and help him evaluate their probable effects. Such studies can determine the ethnic composition, age distribution, and proportion of the propertied and self-employed in each occupation and how these traits Essays In The New Urban History the work force change over time.
More important, they can discover Essays In The New Urban History rate of turnover and the opportunities for advancement among workers with any combination of these traits. They can, for example, suggest the comparative prospects for exploitation or advancement of the young and the alien within the same occupation in different periods of time or between occupations in the same period.
Supplemented by investigation of patterns of residence and voluntary association, they can suggest the extent to which attitudes click by men's occupations were reinforced or counteracted by their experience away from work. The act of investment may reflect prior intention to settle permanently.
What does seem clear is that persistence has a stronger association with ownership of real estate than with any other variable in quantifiable sources. For the Online Website Essay Professional Editor part, owners were heads of household, married, and more than thirty years of age, but none of these traits is as useful as property in predicting persistence. Ethnic Differences in Occupational Mobility in Boston, by Stephan Thernstrom p Our previous comparison of immigrants with the native-born revealed that the gap between them had actually grown wider by the end of the race; the foreign-born were less often upwardly mobile and more often downwardly mobile than the natives First-generation immigrants were far more likely to remain blue-collar workers for life; the second generation found the white-collar world as accessible as it was to those youths of old American stock who also began their careers in a manual job.
Nineteenth-Century Cities: Essays in the New Urban History [Stephan Thernstrom, Richard Sennett] on cocktail24.info *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Research on the frontiers of urban studies was the subject of a conference on nineteenth-century cities held in November at Yale University. The Paperback of the Nineteenth-Century Cities: Essays in the New Urban History by Stephan Thernstrom at Barnes & Noble. FREE Shipping on $25 or more!. Nineteenth Century Cities Essays In The New Urban History Nineteenth century cities: essays in the new urban history, nineteenth century cities: essays in the new. Nineteenth-century cities; essays in the new urban history. by Yale Conference on the Nineteenth-Century Industrial City Internet Archive Books. Scanned in China. nineteenth century cities essays in the new urban cocktail24.info - 6a9ade1dda09ce9e0f1a27 nineteenth century cities essays in the new urban.
It is necessary, therefore, to examine the influence of national origins upon career mobility while controlling for inherited class position Essays In The New Urban History holding constant the father's occupational rank. Mobility also Best Blog Ghostwriters For Hire Gb milling Change in Ante-Bellum Philadelphia by Stuart Blumin The tracing of an individual career requires not two but many observations in the sequential editions of the Philadelphia city directory.
With each attempted observation there arises the possibility of loss of trace due to death, out-migration, incomplete data, or the spiritual debilitation of the researcher. Merchants and storekeepers, for their part, also began moving into unexpected fields.
All of this seems to imply that some kind of basic change in the urban economy may have occurred in the period following We are not lacking in theories that tend to support this proposition, most notably the 'merchant capitalism' theory of John R.
Commons' theory of 'merchant capitalism' as the intervening stage between craft and factory production in American history. This theory, first explored by Commons a half-century ago in a study of American an usually Philadelphia shoemakers, has gradually become the most widely respected interpretation of economic change in the immediate pre-Civil War period.
In essence, it states that the rapid expansion of markets, created by the revolutionary developments in transportation, eroded the craft system by giving large merchants increasing control Essays In The New Urban History the production of goods. Katz Let us begin by assuming the validity of the arguments about the correlation between different criteria of stratification.
We signify the group or class that shares a similar rank on these scales by an occupational title. Thus, occupational designation provides an index of class position because it reflects the elements that define class, namely, shared attitudes and prestige based on the possession of objective and socially desired attributes such as income, education, and the 'cleanliness' of work.
In this definition the origins of class lie in objective circumstances, the conditions and rewards associated with different categories of occupations. Nevertheless, the historian of class may begin his search for distinctions in either objective indexes or in the realm of attitudes, which as in the case of the 'urban outlook' provide insight into groupings whose empirical boundaries may then be traced.
Residence and Social Structure: Schnore and Peter R. Knights Contemporary sociological interest in the city includes considerable emphasis upon such subjects as suburbanization, the spatial distribution of ethnic groups including, most prominently, the segregation of Negroesand the ecology of socioeconomic status groups.
Knights At least twice as many households passed through Boston in each decade as lived there at the start of any decade. Clearly any such measure must derive the rate of change of residence per unit of time.
Get this from a library! Nineteenth-century cities; essays in the new urban history.. [Stephan Thernstrom; Richard Sennett;]. Nineteenth-Century Cities: Essays in the New Urban History. Thernstrom, Stephan, & Sennett, Richard, Ed. Nineteenthcentury Cities Essays In The New Urban cocktail24.info NINETEENTHCENTURY CITIES ESSAYS IN THE NEW URBAN HISTORY Nineteenthcentury Cities Essays In The New Urban. Nineteenth-Century Cities has 2 ratings and 1 review. Brittany said: The Glassworkers of Carmaux, Joan W. Scott (p )Working-class unrest in.
Changes of residence appear from a comparison, for each sample member, of his addresses in consecutive city directories. But how can one compute averages for a group whose members stay in Boston for varying periods?
A solution is to denominate one year's residence in Boston by a sample member as one 'residence-year,' a measure analogous to man-hours. Springfield, MA by Michael H. Frisch Springfield's Board of Alderman was the source of virtually all power in the government; it consisted of eight men, elected annually by the city at large but with one nominally standing from each of the eight wards The large workingmen presence at a time when the elite dominated the community can be explained, in part, by the respect and visibility traditionally enjoyed by Springfield's craftsmen, especially those at the U.
Armory, where the famous Springfield rifle was made. But nevertheless, this presence is impressive in its own right. It reflected the informality of city affairs and roles in them; it reflected the degree to which government still expressed the community's sense of click to see more and cohesion.
In the s, then, the conduct of city government, as opposed to just its election, had these two dimensions: For instance, in his well-known article on municipal progressivism, Samuel Hays has suggested quite necessarily that we must look past the high-minded, self-righteous rhetoric of the reformers to detect the more particularistic social meaning of their crusade, the structural determinants that shaped their perceptions and their prescriptions.
Thus, the drive to rationalize, consolidate, and purify local governments was most basically the elite's way of reinforcing its own position against real or potential threats, and thus could take on more or less explicitly antidemocratic overtones. I have suggested that the importance of the emergence of urban politics lies in its relation to broader change in the meaning of community itself.
Robert Wiebe's Search for Order stresses that these years saw a turning from the local, immediate community to more formal and cosmopolitan loyalties- from the horizontal to the vertical orientation in society, as others put it, or from the classic Gemeinshaft to Gesellschaft. It was not that the idea of local community was disappearing, but rather that it was changing quite basically.
Maingot First and most obvious is the fact that since one deviant case brings the generalization into question, there is a clear need for reevaluating the existing explanation historical and ahistorical ones of Essays In The New Urban History American civil-military relations.
Second, such reevaluation should be interdisciplinary in focus and should give special emphasis to urban social structure, since that was the stage on which social roles were played out. Studies on urban social structure and on civil-military relations have given far too little emphasis thus far to the role Essays In The New Urban History styles of life, including considerations of race, in the early period of national society.
Patterns of Lower-Class Life: Lees Whereas the initial response of migrants to urban life had been to reorganized family units, the unequal incidence of death rates by occupation and social class, as well as the general instability of their economic position, worked together to undermine the continued existence of Irish families. In order to survive, it was necessary for many to expand their household by taking in other families and single individuals to share the tiny spaces that they could Essays In The New Urban History to rent.
Meanwhile, most adults and adolescents were forced out of the home and into the urban labor market. As a result, the nuclear family as a working unit and as a residential unit had broken down for a substantial percentage of the Irish; yet the form retained its cohesiveness. There was virtually no movement before by individuals out of large Celtic households. Middle-Class Families and Urban Violence: The experience of a Chicago Community in the Nineteenth Century by Richard Sennett the complexities and contradictions found in the 'actual time' of human life suggest ways in which abstract concepts can be made more dense and more subtl, and so less precise.
Yet it does now seem more fruitful to concentrate on the function of nuclear families or on the function of families of restricted size in middle-class communities in the great cities of the nineteenth century, rather than to try to locate the conditions of peculiarly middle-class life in the structural existence of these family types. Here is the source of that job 'freeze' to be seen in the mobility patterns of fathers in intense-family situations; the bourgeois intensive family in this way became a shelter from the work pressures of the industrial city, a place where men tried to institute some control and establish some comforting intimacies in the shape of their lives, while withdrawing to the sidelines as the new opportunities of the city industries opened up.
Such an interpretation of these middle-class families complements, on the side of the home, the interpretation Richard Hofsadter has made of the middle classes politically, in the latter part of the nineteenth century, He characterizes them as feeling that the new industrial order source not theirs, but had passed them by and left them powerless.
It is this peculiar feeling of social helplessness on the part of the fathers that explains what use they made of their family lives. But the goals of these middle-class people in Union Park were themselves self-contradictory: The goals for the home were also contradictory: Thus, because the goals of these middle-class people were bred of an equal desire to escape from and succeed in the city, the possibility of a wholly satisfying pattern of achievement for them was denied.
The contradictory nature of the family link and products was innately frustrating so th a family impulse in one direction inevitably Ghostwriting For Hire Uk another image of what was wanted. This meant that the sources of defeat were nameless for the families involved; surely these families were not aware of the web of self-contradictions in which in retrospect they seem to have been enmeshed; they knew only that things never seemed to work out in the end planned, that they suffered defeats in a systematic way.
It is this specific kind of frustration that would lead to a sense of being overwhelmed, which, in this community's family system, led easily to a hysterical belief in hidden, unknown threats Essays In The New Urban History to strike at a man at almost any time. Cassie rated it liked it Sep 09, Amy rated it it was ok Sep 12,