It has only been since the s that this area has attracted more interest among EFL teachers.
The purpose of this article is to look at some of the issues and ways in which literature can be exploited in the classroom.
There are also links to classroom activities and lessons with literature that you can download and use straight away. First of all, any method or approach towards using literature in the classroom must take as a starting point the question: The Macmillan English Dictionary gives the following definition:.
Many authors, critics and linguists have puzzled over what literature is. One broader explanation of literature says that literary texts are products that reflect different aspects of society. Other linguists say that there is no inherent quality to a literary text that makes a literary text, rather it is the interpretation that the reader gives to the text Eagleton This brings us back to the above definition in the sense that literature is only literature if it is considered as art. Before doing any study of a literary text with your learners, one idea would be to ask them what they think literature is.
There are many good reasons for using literature in click at this page classroom.
Here are a few:. How the teacher will use a literary text depends on the model they choose. The cultural model views a literary text as a product. This means that it is treated as a source of information about the target culture. It is the most traditional approach, often used in university courses on literature. The cultural model will examine the social, political and historical background to a text, literary movements and genres.
There is no specific language work done on Esl Literature Review Proofreading Website Usa text. This approach tends to be quite teacher-centred. The language model aims to be more learner-centred. As learners proceed through a text, they pay attention to the way language is used. They come to grips with the meaning and increase their general awareness of English.
Within this model of studying literature, the teacher can choose to focus on general grammar and vocabulary in the same way that these are presented in coursebooks for example or use stylistic analysis. Stylistic analysis involves the close study of the linguistic features http://cocktail24.info/blog/need-help-writing-editorial.php the text to enable students to make meaningful interpretations of the text — it aims to help learners read and study literature more competently.
The personal growth model is also a process-based approach and tries to read more more learner-centred. This model encourages learners to draw on their own opinions, feelings and personal experiences.
It aims for interaction between the text and the reader in English, helping make the language more memorable. This model recognises the immense power that literature can have to move people and attempts to use that in the classroom. Both are based on short texts: Using literature over a longer period of time — the set novel or reader The above lesson plans are all based on short extracts or poems and can therefore easily be used over one class period.
However, there are very good reasons for encouraging learners to read books. Extensive reading is an excellent way of improving English, and it can be very motivating to finish an entire book in another language.
In addition, many international exams have certain link questions on them that pertain to set novels each year. One option that is Esl Literature Review Proofreading Website Usa available to language teachers is the wide range of simplified and inexpensive versions of literary texts, called readers see Onestop Shop for a list of readers for different levels.
Setting up a class library of novels and readers, if you have the resources, is an excellent idea.
Tim Bowen and Jonathan Marks, in their book Inside Teachingrecommend the following ideas for extensive reading of literature:. DIY literature lesson plan In our first Methodology article on Using Literature, there were two sample lesson plans based on an excerpt or a short story. Both followed a similar lesson plan format, outlined below.
This sort of lesson plan works well for extracts from stories, poems or extracts from plays. Preparing to read activities include:. With very evocative pieces of literature or poetry this can be quite powerful. Then I let students read it to themselves.
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It is important to let students approach a piece of literature the first time without giving them any specific task other than to simply read it. One To Theater Studies Resume the aims of teaching literature is to evoke interest and pleasure from the language. If students have to do a task at every stage of a literature lesson, the pleasure can be lost.
Once students have read it once, you can set comprehension questions or ask Esl Literature Review Proofreading Website Usa to explain the significance of certain key words of the text. Another way of checking comprehension is to ask students to explain to each other in pairs what they have understood.
This could be followed up by more subjective questions e. Why do you think X said this? How do you think the woman feels? What made him do this? At this stage get to grips with the more difficult words in the text. See how many of the unfamiliar words students can get from context. You could also look at certain elements of style that the author has used. Remember that there is some use in looking at non-standard forms of language to understand the standard.
If appropriate to the text, look at the connotation of words which the author has chosen.
Here are some ideas:. Using extracts from stories or short stories. Using extracts from plays Most of the ideas from stories above could be applied here, but obviously, this medium gives plenty of opportunity for students to do some drama in the classroom. Here are some possibilities:. Potential problems Problem 1: Where do I find material? Of course you may have a novel or book of poetry that you have been dying to use with your students for a long time.
But where can you get more material? The internet brings you instant access to many works source literature. Use a search engine.
Usually it is enough to key in the name of the author or the book you are looking for. Older books and plays can sometimes be found entirely on-line. Look for literature from other English speaking countries there is lots and lots to give your students a richer variety of work written in the English language.
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You can also try the following link: How do I choose material? Think about the following factors when you choose a piece of literature to use with learners:. Is the text too difficult? Obviously a teacher would not want to use a text that is completely beyond their learners. This would ultimately be frustrating for everyone involved.
However, the immediate difficulty with vocabulary in a text might not be an obstacle to its comprehension. Learners can be trained to infer meaning of difficult words from context. The selection of a text must be given careful thought, but also the treatment of the text by the teacher this means think about the tasks you set for a reading of a piece of literature, not just the text.
Stylistics and the Teaching of LiteratureLongman Thank you for your lovely comment, Catherine Notting Hill Girl. It really made my day, and I had not seen this article or thought about it for some time! You may also be interested click here the literature postcards we made for the Global course I wrote.
They too are still online, here! Thanks again, and happy teaching. Notting Hill Girl Wed, 6 Dec Hi Lindsay I will be teaching Level 2 English to adult students in January for the first time, so I'm looking for ideas.
I'm also trying to challenge myself with teaching in different ways. Your article is so helpful. Just read it click start to end and will definitely try some of your suggestions.
Thanks SO much for writing it.
Web Editor Thu, 5 Jan 4: Hi Nuzla, Thanks for your feedback. That's a very good question. As you rightly say, lots of articles focus on pre or post-reading tasks. However, here are some activities you can use while reading: Hope these help and do please let us know how you get on. Best wishes, The onestopenglish team. Thank you so much for the useful tips. There are many examples for pre and post reading in the web.