Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
Socialist economic systems can be divided into non-market and market forms. Non-market socialism aims to circumvent the inefficiencies and crises traditionally associated with capital accumulation and the profit system.
Profits generated by these firms would be controlled directly by the workforce of each firm, or accrue to society at large in the form of a social dividend. The socialist political movement includes a set of political philosophies that originated in the revolutionary movements of the mid-to-late 18th century and of concern for the social problems that were associated with capitalism.
Socialist politics has been both centralist and decentralised; internationalist and nationalist in orientation; organised through political parties and opposed to party politics; at times overlapping with trade unions and at other times independent of — and critical of — unions; and present in both industrialised and developing countries. Democratic socialism is frequently used to draw contrast to the political system of the Soviet Unionwhich critics argue operated in an authoritarian fashion.
By the late 19th century, after the work of Karl Marx and his collaborator Friedrich Engelssocialism had come to signify opposition to capitalism and advocacy for a post-capitalist system based on some form of social ownership of the means of production. It is a political ideology or world viewa wide and divided political movement"  and while the emergence of the Soviet Union as the world's first nominally socialist state led to socialism's widespread association with the Soviet economic modelmany economists and intellectuals argued that in practice the model Ed Miliband Fabian Essay as a form of state capitalism    or a non-planned administrative or command economy.
Today, some socialists have also adopted the causes of other social movements, such as environmentalismfeminism and liberalism. The origin of the term "socialism" may be traced Ed Miliband Fabian Essay and attributed to a number of originators, in addition to significant historical shifts in the usage and scope of the word.
The related, more technical term in Roman and then medieval law was societas. This latter word could mean companionship and fellowship as well as the more legalistic idea of a consensual contract between freemen".
The term "socialism" was created by Henri de Saint-Simonone of the founders of what would later be labelled " utopian socialism ". Simon coined "socialism" as a contrast to the liberal doctrine of " individualism ", which stressed that people act or should read more as if they are in isolation from one another. Saint-Simon proposed economic planning, scientific administration and the application of modern scientific advancements to the organization of society.
By contrast, Robert Owen proposed the organization of production and ownership in cooperatives. The modern definition and usage of "socialism" settled by the s, becoming the predominant term among the group of words "co-operative", "mutualist" and "associationist", which had previously been used as synonyms. The term "communism" also fell out of use during this period, despite earlier distinctions between socialism and communism from the s. It was not until click to see more the Bolshevik revolution that "socialism" came to refer to a distinct stage between capitalism and communism, introduced by Vladimir Lenin as a means to defend the Bolshevik seizure of power against traditional Marxist criticisms that Russia's productive forces were not sufficiently developed for socialist revolution.
A distinction between "communist" and "socialist" as descriptors of political ideologies arose in after the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party renamed itself to the All-Russian Communist Party, where communist came to specifically mean socialists who supported the politics and theories of LeninismBolshevism and later Marxism—Leninism although communist parties continued to describe Ap Poetry Essay Help as socialists dedicated to socialism.
The words "socialism" and "communism" eventually accorded with the adherents' and opponents' cultural attitude towards religion. In Christian Europe, communism was believed to be the atheist way of life.
In Protestant England, the word "communism" was too culturally and aurally close to the Roman Catholic communion ritehence English atheists denoted themselves socialists. The Owenites in England and the Fourierists in France were considered "respectable" socialists, while working-class movements that "proclaimed the necessity of total social change" denoted themselves communists.
In later editions of his Principles of Political EconomyMill would argue that "as far as economic theory was concerned, there is nothing in principle in economic theory that precludes an economic order based on socialist policies". Socialist models and ideas espousing common or public ownership have existed since antiquity.
"When he said it did he mean it?" - Ed Miliband destroys Prime Minister
It has been claimed — though controversially — that there were elements of socialist thought in the politics of classical Greek philosophers Plato  and Aristotle. The first "self-conscious socialist movements developed in the s Most Inspirational People Essay s.
The OwenitesSaint-Simonians and Fourierists provided a series of coherent analyses and interpretations of society. They also, especially in the case of read article Owenites, overlapped with a number of Ed Miliband Fabian Essay working-class movements like the Chartists in the United Kingdom".
Leaders in the movement also called for a more equitable distribution of income and better living conditions for the working classes. The first advocates of socialism favoured social levelling in order to create a meritocratic or technocratic society based on individual talent. Count Henri de Saint-Simon is regarded as the first individual to coin the term "socialism".
Other early socialist thinkers, such as Thomas Hodgkin and Charles Hall, based their ideas on David Ricardo 's economic theories.
They reasoned that the equilibrium value of commodities approximated prices charged by the producer when those commodities were in elastic supply and that these producer prices corresponded to the embodied labour — the cost of the labour essentially the wages paid that was required to produce the commodities.
The Ricardian socialists viewed profit, interest and rent as deductions from this exchange-value. They advocated reform, with some such as Robert Owen advocating the transformation of society to small communities without private property.
Robert Owen's contribution to modern socialism was his understanding that actions and characteristics of individuals were largely determined by the social environment they were raised in and exposed to. The Paris Commune was a government that briefly ruled Paris from 18 March more formally, from 28 March to 28 May The Commune elections held on 26 March elected a Commune council of 92 members, one member for each 20, residents.
It also reached a consensus on certain policies that tended towards a progressive, secular and highly-democratic social democracy.
Because the Commune was only able to meet on fewer than 60 days in all, only a few decrees were actually implemented. These included the separation of church and state ; the remission of rents owed for the entire period of the siege during which payment had been suspended ; the abolition of night work in the hundreds of Paris bakeries ; the granting of pensions to the unmarried companions and children of National Guards killed on active service; and the free return, by the city pawnshopsof all workmen's tools and household items valued up to 20 francs, pledged during the siege.
The Commune nonetheless recognised the previous owner's right to compensation. The International Workingmen's Association united diverse revolutionary currents including French followers of Proudhon BlanquistsPhiladelphesEnglish trade unionists, socialists and social democrats. The IWA held a preliminary conference in and had its first click at this page at Geneva in Due to the wide variety of philosophies present in the First International, there was conflict from the start.
The first objections to Marx came from the mutualists who opposed communism and statism. However, shortly after Mikhail Bakunin and his followers called collectivists while in the International joined inthe First International became polarised into two camps headed by Marx and Bakunin respectively.
The First International became the first major international forum for the promulgation of socialist ideas. The followers of Bakunin were called collectivist anarchists and sought to collectivise ownership of the means of production while retaining payment proportional to the amount and kind of labor of each individual.
Like Proudhonists, they asserted the right of each individual to the product of his labor and to be remunerated for Ed Miliband Fabian Essay particular contribution to production. By contrast, anarcho-communists sought collective ownership of both the means and the products of labor. Errico Malatesta put it: In this way each will give to society all that his strength permits until enough is produced for every one; and each will take all that he needs, limiting his needs only read article those things of which there is not yet plenty for every one".
It was a significant force in Italy and Spain in the early 20th century until it was crushed by the fascist regimes in those countries. In the United States, syndicalism appeared in the guise of the Industrial Workers of the Worldor "Wobblies", founded in An influential anarchist movement based on syndicalist ideas is anarcho-syndicalism.
The Fabian See more is a British socialist organisation which was established with the purpose of advancing the principles of socialism via gradualist and reformist means. Originally, the Fabian Society was committed to the establishment of a socialist economyalongside a commitment to British imperialism as a progressive and modernising force.
Guild socialism is a political movement advocating workers' control of industry through the medium of trade-related guilds "in an implied contractual relationship with the public". Inspired by medieval guilds, theorists such as Samuel G.
Cole advocated the public ownership of industries and their organisation into guilds, each of which would be under the democratic control of its trade union. Guild socialists were less inclined than Fabians to invest power in a state.
As the ideas of Marx and Engels took on flesh, particularly in central Europe, socialists sought to unite in an international organisation. Inon the centennial of the French Revolution ofthe Second International was founded, with delegates from 20 countries representing about labour and socialist organisations.
Anarchists were ejected and not allowed in, mainly due to pressure from Marxists. Not only did they effectively present themselves as champions of minority rights; they also provoked the German Marxists into demonstrating a dictatorial intolerance which was a factor in preventing the British labor movement from following the Marxist direction indicated by such leaders as H.
Reformism arose as Ed Miliband Fabian Essay alternative to revolution. Eduard Bernstein was a leading social democrat in Germany who proposed the concept of evolutionary socialism. Revolutionary socialists quickly targeted reformism: Revolutionary socialism encompasses multiple social and political movements that may define "revolution" differently from one another.
The Social Democratic Party SPD in Germany became the largest and most powerful socialist party in Europe, despite working illegally until the anti-socialist laws were dropped in In the elections, it gained 1, votes, a quarter of the total votes cast, according to Engels.
Inthe year of his death, Engels emphasised the Communist Manifesto 's emphasis on winning, as a first step, the "battle of democracy". InAustralians elected the first Australian Labor Party prime minister: Chris Watsonwho became the first democratically elected social democrat. The Kibbutz Movement would then expand through the 20th century following a doctrine of Zionist socialism.
In Februaryrevolution exploded in Russia. Workers, soldiers and peasants established link councilsthe monarchy fell and a provisional government convoked pending the election of a constituent assembly.
Lenin had published essays on his analysis of imperialismthe monopoly and globalisation phase of capitalism as predicted by Marx, as well as analyses on the social conditions of his contemporary time. He observed that as capitalism had further developed in Europe and America, the workers remained unable to gain class consciousness so long as they were too busy working and concerning with how to make ends meet.
Ed Miliband Fabian Essay He therefore proposed that the social revolution would require the leadership of a vanguard party of class-conscious revolutionaries from the educated and politically active part of the population.
Upon arriving in PetrogradLenin declared that the revolution in Russia was not over, but had only begun and that the next step was for the workers' soviets to take full state authority. He issued a thesis outlining the Bolshevik's party programme, including rejection of any legitimacy in the provisional government and advocacy for state power to be given to the peasant and working class through the soviets.
The Bolsheviks became the most influential force in the soviets and on 7 November the capitol of the provisional government was stormed by Bolshevik Red Guards in what afterwards known as the " Great October Socialist Revolution ". More info rule of the provisional government was ended and the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic — the world's first constitutionally socialist state — was established.
On 25 January at the Petrograd SovietLenin declared "Long live the world socialist revolution! On 26 January, the day after assuming executive power, Lenin wrote Draft Regulations on Workers' Controlwhich granted workers control of businesses with more than five workers and office employees and access to all books, documents and stocks and whose decisions were to be "binding upon the owners of the enterprises".
The Constituent Assembly elected Socialist-Revolutionary leader Victor Chernov President of a Russian republic, but rejected the Bolshevik proposal that it endorse the Soviet decrees on land, peace and workers' control and acknowledge the power of the Soviets of Workers', Soldiers' and Peasants' Deputies.
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The next day, the Bolsheviks declared that the assembly was elected on outdated party lists  and the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of the Soviets dissolved it. Within this left wing discontent, the most large scale events were the worker's Kronstadt rebellion    and the anarchist led Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine uprising which controlled an area known as the Free Territory.
The Bolshevik Russian Revolution of January Ed Miliband Fabian Essay communist parties worldwide and their concomitant revolutions of — Few communists doubted that the Russian success of socialism depended on successful, working-class socialist revolutions in developed capitalist countries. The Russian Revolution also influenced uprisings in other countries around this time. The German Revolution of — resulted in the replacing Germany's imperial government with a republic.
The revolutionary period lasted from November until the formal establishment of the Weimar Republic in August and included an episode known as the Bavarian Soviet Republic     and the Spartacist uprising. In Italy, the Ed Miliband Fabian Essay known as the Biennio Rosso   were characterised by mass strikes, worker manifestations and self-management experiments through land and factory occupations.