This article was written several years ago. It is long by internet standards and basically explains the main subjects of quantum theory from a Wave Structure of Matter foundation wave mechanics.
If you prefer shorter summaries just browse the quantum physics links on the right side of this page.
Top mathematicians and key scientists of all times have discovered and nurtured most of the basic concepts upon which our scientific knowledge is now based. It all began in October , at the Fifth Solvay Congress in Brussels. It was Louis de Broglie’s first congress, and he had been “full of pleasure and curiosity. Read the latest Life & Style News and Reviews from Daily Life, including Fashion, Celebrity, Beauty, Wellbeing and Home & Style. Antarctica:: Antarctic Treaty System.
Now a purely particle theory contains nothing that enables us to define a frequency; for this reason alone, therefore, we are compelled, in the case of light, to introduce the idea of a particle and that of frequency simultaneously. On the other hand, determination of the stable motion of electrons in the atom introduces integers, and up to this point the only phenomena involving integers in see more were those of interference and of normal modes of vibration.
This fact suggested to me the idea that electrons too could not be considered simply as particles, but that frequency wave properties must be assigned to them also. The development during the present century is characterized by two theoretical systems essentially independent of each other: The two systems do not directly contradict each other; but they seem little adapted to fusion into one unified theory.
Experiments on interference made with particle rays have given brilliant proof that the wave character of the phenomena of motion as assumed by the theory do, really, correspond to the facts. Albert EinsteinOn Quantum Mechanics, A careful analysis of the process of observation in atomic physics has shown that the subatomic particles have no meaning as isolated entities, but can only be understood as interconnections between the preparation of an experiment and the subsequent measurement.
Quantum theory thus reveals a basic oneness of the universe. It shows that we cannot decompose the world into independently existing smallest units. From to there was a revolution in the foundations of our understanding of light and matter interactions. In Planck showed that light energy must be emitted and absorbed in discrete 'quanta' to explain blackbody radiation.
Finally, in the late s, de Broglie and De Broglie Phd Thesis introduced the concept of Standing Waves to explain these discrete frequency and energy states of light and matter standing waves only exist at discrete frequencies and thus energy states. So it is clear that Waves are central to Quantum Physics and our understanding of the structure and discrete energy states of Matter which explains why Quantum Theory is also called Quantum Wave Mechanics.
As we are dealing go here a scientific theory, it is necessary to begin by stating the central Principles of the 'Metaphysics of Space and Motion and the Wave Structure of Matter'which describe how Matter exists in Space as a Spherical Standing Wave and interacts with other Matter in De Broglie Phd Thesis Space around it.
From this foundation we can then deduce the solutions to many problems currently found in Quantum Theory caused by this ancient concept that matter exists as 'particles'.
I think it is useful to end this quantum physics introduction with two very important quotes. Firstly from Erwin Schrodinger.
What we observe as material bodies and forces are nothing but shapes and variations in the structure of space.
Particles are just schaumkommen appearances. The world is given to me De Broglie Phd Thesis once, not one existing and one perceived. Subject and object are only one. The barrier between them cannot be said to have broken down as a result of recent experience in the physical sciences, for this barrier does not exist. Erwin Schrodinger, on Quantum Theory. I don't like it, and I'm sorry I ever had anything to do with it. Erwin Schrodinger talking about quantum theory. The scientist only imposes two things, namely truth and sincerity, imposes them upon himself and upon other scientists.
Secondly, David Bohm provides a clear account of how this incorrect 'particle' conception of matter not only causes harm to the Sciences, but also to the way we think and live, and thus to our very society and its future evolution.
The notion that all these fragments is separately existent is evidently an illusion, and this illusion cannot do other See more lead to endless conflict and confusion. Indeed, the attempt to live according to the notion that the fragments are really separate is, in essence, what has led to the growing series of extremely urgent crises that is confronting us today.
Thus, as is now well known, this way of life has brought about pollution, destruction of the balance of nature, over-population, world-wide economic and political disorder and the creation of an overall environment that is neither physically nor mentally healthy for most of the people who live in it.
Individually there has developed a widespread feeling of helplessness and despair, in the face of what seems to be an overwhelming mass of disparate social forces, going beyond the control and even the comprehension of the human beings who are caught up in it. David BohmWholeness and the Implicate Order, This is the Cause of All Forces, i. This is the Cause of Mach's Principle - the Mass mass-energy density of space of an object is determined by all the other matter in the Universe.
Very approximate wave diagram, only shows In-Waves does not show Out-Waves and the ellipsoidal shape is not accurate.
But the basic idea of gravity being caused by slower wave velocity in higher mass-energy density space is important.
Quantum Theory: Quotes from Famous Quantum Scientist Louis de Broglie on Quantum Theory, de Broglie Wavelength / Matter Waves. The Wave Structure of . I have compiled a very solid list of the 12 most famous PhD theses (plural of thesis) in history. Do realize that this list includes ‘PhD Theses’ and not books. Quantum Physics: Quantum Theory / Wave Mechanics: The Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) and Spherical Standing Wave Interactions explains Discrete Energy States of. We provide excellent essay writing service 24/7. Enjoy proficient essay writing and custom writing services provided by professional academic writers. In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle, also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle or Heisenberg's indeterminacy principle, is any of a variety of.
An obvious example of this is light curving past the sun. During the yearsmany experiments were done on the interactions of light beams, particle beams, and metal targets. Analysis of these experiments showed that Light and Matter had both De Broglie Phd Thesis and Wave properties. To do this http://cocktail24.info/blog/pay-to-get-professional-papers.php must begin by explaining the experimental foundations of Quantum Theory; 1.
In Max Planck made a profound discovery. Prior to then light had been considered as a continuous electromagnetic wave, thus the discrete nature of light was completely unexpected, as Albert Einstein explains.
About fifteen years ago nobody had yet doubted that a correct account of the electrical, optical, link thermal properties of matter was possible on the basis of Galileo-Newtonian mechanics applied to molecular motion and of Maxwell's theory of the electromagnetic field. Albert Einstein Then Planck showed that in order to establish a law of heat radiation Infra red light waves consonant with experience, it was necessary to employ a method of calculation whose incompatibility with the principles of classical physics became clearer and clearer.
For with this method of calculation, Planck introduced into physics the quantum hypothesis, which has since received brilliant confirmation.
In the year nineteen hundred, in the course of purely theoretical mathematical investigation, Max Planck made a very remarkable discovery: To arrive at results consistent with the relevant experiments, radiation of a given frequency f had to be treated De Broglie Phd Thesis though it consisted of energy atoms photons of the individual energy hf, where h is Planck's universal constant.
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During the years following, it was shown that light was everywhere produced and absorbed in such energy quanta. In particular, Niels Bohr was able to largely understand the structure of the atom, on the assumption that the atoms can only have discrete energy values, and that the discontinuous transitions between them are connected with the emission or absorption De Broglie Phd Thesis energy quantum.
This threw some light on the fact that in their gaseous state elements and their compounds radiate and absorb only light of certain sharply defined frequencies. Even the Greeks had already conceived the atomistic nature of matter and the concept was raised to a high degree of probability by the scientists of the nineteenth century. But it was Planck's law of radiation that yielded the first exact determination - independent of other assumptions - of the absolute magnitudes of atoms.
More than that, he showed convincingly that in addition to the atomistic De Broglie Phd Thesis of matter there is a kind of atomistic structure to energy, governed by the universal constant h, which was introduced by Planck. This discovery became the basis of all twentieth-century research in physics and has almost entirely conditioned its development ever since.
Without this discovery it would not have been possible to establish a workable theory of molecules and atoms and the energy processes that govern their transformations. Moreover, it has shattered the whole framework of classical mechanics and electrodynamics and set science a fresh task: Despite remarkable partial gains, the problem is still far from a satisfactory solution.
It is ironic article source in Albert Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize for this discovery, though he never believed in particles and acknowledged that he did not know the cause of the discrete energy transfers photons which were contradictory to his continuous field theory of matter!
In Albert Einstein wrote to his friend Michael Besso expressing his frustration. All these fifty years of conscious brooding have brought me no nearer to the answer to the question, 'What are light quanta? Most importantly, Albert Einstein also suspected that Matter could not be described by a continuous spherical force field.
I consider it quite possible that physics cannot be based on the field concept, i. In learn more here case, nothing remains of my entire castle in the air, gravitation theory included, [and of] the rest of modern physics. In fact Matter, as a Spherical Standing Wave which causes the 'Field' effect, interacts with other matter in discrete standing wave patterns, not with continuous force fields as he had imagined, thus his task was ultimately impossible, as he sadly came to realise towards the end of his life.
However, his work on the photoelectric effect confirmed that light energy was only emitted and absorbed by electrons in discrete amounts or quanta. This quanta of light energy soon became known as the 'photon' i.
Since the theory of general relativity implies the representation of physical reality by a continuous field, the concept De Broglie Phd Thesis particles or material points cannot play a fundamental partnor can the concept of motion.
Albert Einstein is correct that there are no discrete particles, and that the particle can only appear as a limited region in space in which the field strength or the energy density are particularly high.
But it is the high Wave-Amplitude of the Wave-Center of a Spherical Standing Wave in Space not of a continuous spherical force field that causes the particle effect. Thus of three concepts, particlesforce fieldsand motionit finally turns out that Motion, as the spherical wave motion of space, is the correct concept, as it then explains both particles and fields. For further explanation see Article on Relativity It is most important to realise though that Albert Einstein was correct in imagining matter as being spatially extended, as he explains.
I wished to show that space time is not necessarily something to which one can ascribe to a separate existence, independently of the actual objects of physical reality.
Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended. In this way the concept empty space loses its meaning.
We can now finally solve these problems by understanding the reason for these discrete energy states, which are due to the fact that standing waves only exist at discrete frequencies, like notes on the string of a guitar, thus while the Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter predicts that energy exchanges will be discrete, as observed, the continuous e-m wave does not anticipate this.
Thus the Spherical Standing Wave Structure of Matter explains Max Planck's discovery that there are only certain allowed discrete energy states for electrons in molecules and atoms, and further, that light is only ever emitted and absorbed by electrons in discrete or 'quantum' amounts, as the electrons move from one stable standing wave pattern to another.
This is explained in more detail in section 1. The next step was taken by de Broglie. He asked himself how the discrete states could be understood by the aid of current concepts, and more info on a parallel with stationary standing wavesas for instance in the case of proper frequencies of organ pipes and strings in acoustics.
It is with some frustration that I now read these quotes, as it is obvious in hindsight as to their errors, and how just click for source they can now be solved! Nonetheless, as he was close to the truth he had considerable success with his theory, and these predicted wave properties of matter were shortly thereafter confirmed from experiments Davisson and Germer, on the scattering of electrons through crystals which act as diffraction slits.
As Albert Einstein confirms. Experiments on interference made with particle rays have given brilliant proof that the wave character of the phenomena click motion as assumed by the theory does, really, correspond to the facts. So by the wave properties of matter had been predicted theoretically by de Broglie, and then confirmed by De Broglie Phd Thesis.
But unfortunately these scientists continued to believe in the existence of discrete particles, and thus they misinterpreted this most important discovery of the standing wave properties of matter. InNiels Bohr had developed a simple though only partly correct model for the hydrogen atom that assumed; Our further comments in brackets.
This is nearly correct, they are not 'orbits' but complex Standing Wave patterns ii Only certain orbits are stable. This is nearly correct, only certain Standing De Broglie Phd Thesis patterns De Broglie Phd Thesis resonantly stable iii Light is emitted and absorbed by the atom when the electron 'jumps' from one allowed orbital state to a another. This is nearly correct, the electrons move from one stable Standing Wave pattern to another. This is known as 'Resonant Coupling' and is explained in Section 1.
This early atomic model had some limited success because it was obviously created to explain the discrete energy states of light emitted and absorbed by bound electrons in atoms or molecules, as discovered by Planck in As Albert Einstein explains. Thus he was not actually looking for the wave structure of matter. Instead, as matter was already assumed to be a particle, he was looking for wave properties of matter to complement the known particle properties.