Euthanasia is translated from Greek as "good death" or "easy death.
That usage is now archaic. As the word is currently understood, euthanasia occurs when one person ends the life of another person for the purpose of ending the killed person's pain or suffering. Euthanasia is sometimes divided into different categories.
Some people also use the term "passive euthanasia" to describe a death that occurs after undesired, life-sustaining medical treatment is withheld or withdrawn. This is a misnomer. Euthanasia, at least as the link is presently utilized, involves intentional killing. That being so, "passive euthanasia" is not euthanasia, since death, when it comes — not everyone who has life-sustaining treatment dies as a result of withheld treatment — is naturally caused by the underlying illness or injury.
Assisted suicide is closely related to euthanasia. An assisted suicide occurs when one person gives another person the instructions, means, or capability to bring about their own demise. In the context of the modern moral and public policy debates, the motive in assisted suicide, as in euthanasia, is to bring about an end to suffering. Suicide per se is not considered to be the same as "assisted suicide" because the Against Euthanasia Debate Essay is an individual act while the latter involves a joint enterprise between the suicidal person and a helper to bring about death.
The Hippocratic oath explicitly prohibited doctors from giving their patients poisons to end life and thus, traditionally, euthanasia and assisted suicide have not been considered legitimate medical acts. Legalizing either practice would transform hastening patient deaths from an ethically proscribed and usually criminal act into a legitimate medical practice. Thus, widespread legalization would be a profound and dramatic shift in the traditional ethics click to see more medical Against Euthanasia Debate Essay.
Euthanasia is currently illegal and punishable as murder throughout the United States.
Assisted suicide is a felony akin to manslaughter in most states, proscribed either by statute or court interpretation of the common law. The federal government has outlawed the use of federal funds in assisted suicide. Assisted suicide is, however, legal in Oregon, where state law authorizes physicians to write lethal prescriptions at the request of patients who have been diagnosed with a terminal illness reasonably likely to cause death within six months.
In order for the assisted suicide to be legal, the prescribing physician must follow regulatory guidelines. Most current legalization proposals in the United States follow the format of the Oregon law. Internationally, both euthanasia and assisted suicide are almost universally outlawed.
There are a few exceptions to this general rule.
[Content warning: discussion of racism. Comments are turned off due to bad experience with the comments on this kind of material.] I. A set of questions, hopefully. Need essay writing service assistance now? We’re really glad if our team can help you. Get information, facts, and pictures about euthanasia at cocktail24.info Make research projects and school reports about euthanasia easy with credible articles from. Euphemisms for Euthanasia and False Dilemmas: An Update on the Assisted Suicide Debate in the United States Jacqueline Harvey, June 17th,
In Colombia euthanasia is legal due to a ruling by that country's supreme court Republic of Colombia Constitutional Court: As of this writing the Colombia law has not gone into effect pending the creation of legal guidelines to govern the practice. Euthanasia and http://cocktail24.info/blog/esl-home-work-writers-website-usa.php suicide, while technically illegal, are practiced widely by doctors in the Netherlands.
The Netherlands experience will be discussed in detail below. Assisted suicide is not illegal in Switzerlandwhere assisted suicides committed by physicians and laypersons alike are reportedly not prosecuted if based on alleviating suffering caused by serious illness. A few proposals to legalize euthanasia were made in the United States and Germany during the latter portion of the nineteenth century. However, it was Against Euthanasia Debate Essay until after World War I that euthanasia advocacy began in earnest.
Intwo highly respected German academics, Karl Binding, a law professor, and Alfred Hoche, a physician, wrote Permission to Destroy Life Unworthy of Lifewhich advocated euthanasia as a compassionate "healing treatment. The book, which may have coined the term "right to die," also promoted euthanasia of cognitively disabled people as a way of saving societal resources. Binding and Hoche's book generated tremendous interest among Germany's intelligentsia and the public, which quickly came to support legalization of euthanasia.
Euthanasia was popular enough in for Adolph Hitler to attempt to formally legalize the practice. However, strong opposition from the churches caused the German government to drop the proposal. Euthanasia was also advocated in the United States during the s. Inthe New York Read article announced the formation of a national euthanasia society that eventually became known as the Euthanasia Society of America.
Inthe group had drafted a proposed law permitting voluntary euthanasia. Foster Kennedy, the group's president, also called for the legalization of euthanasia for babies born with birth defects. The incipient euthanasia movement in the Read article States grew quiescent in the aftermath of the Holocaust as the world recoiled in horror to the news that between andGerman doctors killed more thandisabled people, including infants and the mentally retarded people.
After the war, organized euthanasia groups continued to exist in the United States but made little headway until the early s, when societal changes that began in the s and the resulting weakening of traditional moral values, as well as intellectual support by some within the medical intelligentsia, provided fertile ground for renewed euthanasia advocacy.
In Against Euthanasia Debate Essay dramatically short period of time, legalized euthanasia went from an "unthinkable" prospect to one of the most contentious and controversial issues debated in the public square. Perhaps the strongest argument made on behalf of legalizing euthanasia or assisted suicide is that it, like abortion, is a "choice" issue.
Protective guidelines "do not protect," opponents declare, pointing to the Dutch experience with euthanasia as "proof" of both the reality of the slippery slope click the following article the relative meaninglessness of guidelines.
They also note that forty-four million Americans do not have health insurance, and that medicine is sometimes practiced in Against Euthanasia Debate Essay discriminatory manner against racial and other minorities. Thus, they argue that "the last people to receive medical treatment will be the first to receive assisted suicide.
There have been several attempts in the United States to legalize euthanasia and assisted suicide through state initiatives. The first attempt came inwhen euthanasia supporters attempted to qualify an initiative for the ballot in Californiawhich would have permitted physicians to administer lethal injections for terminally ill patients who asked to have their deaths hastened. The attempt failed to garner enough signatures to qualify for the ballot. However, inInitiativeAgainst Euthanasia Debate Essay similar proposal, was successfully placed on Washington's ballot.
After initial polling showed voter support in excess of 70 percent, the initiative lost 54 to 46 percent. The pattern repeated itself in California inwhen a virtually identical proposal appeared on the California ballot in November as Proposition After initial support in excess of 70 percent, the measure also lost by a margin of 54 to 46 percent. Unlike the earlier failed initiatives, Measure 16 limited its scope to legalizing physician-assisted suicide. The measure passed narrowly, 51 to 49 percent.
The law was soon overturned as a violation of the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U. However, this decision was itself overturned by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals on procedural grounds Lee v. An attempt by opponents to repeal Measure 16 through another ballot initiative, Measure 51, failed in November by a margin of 60 to 40 percent. The law was in effect as of Insupporters of assisted suicide qualified Proposal B for the November ballot in Michigan.
Proposal B, like Measure 16, would have restricted legalization to assisted suicide and its terms were very similar to those of the Oregon law. The debate over Proposal B was complicated by two factors: Michigan was the home state of Dr.
Whatever the impact of these ancillary issues, when the votes were counted, Proposal B lost by an overwhelming 71 to 29 percent. During the s, Jack Kevorkian was undoubtedly the most well known assisted suicide and euthanasia advocate in the world.
A retired pathologist from Michigan, Kevorkian made headlines internationally when he undertook a well publicized assisted-suicide campaign between and that reportedly ended the lives of approximately one hundred thirty people.
Some of those whose deaths Kevorkian facilitated were terminally ill and diagnosed as having Against Euthanasia Debate Essay than six months to live, but most were disabled or chronically ill. According to autopsy reports, four of the people whose suicides Kevorkian helped had no discernible organic illness.
Kevorkian's campaign began on 4 Junewhen he assisted the suicide of Janet Adkins, a woman diagnosed with early Alzheimer's disease. At the time, Michigan had no law against assisted suicide and Kevorkian click here not arrested.
His next publicly acknowledged assisted suicide was conducted on 23 Octoberwhen Kevorkian made headlines for assisting the suicide of two women at the same location, one with multiple sclerosis and another who complained of chronic, severe pelvic pain.
Kevorkian was arrested for murder but the case was dismissed. The prosecution appealed and the state legislature hastily cobbled together a poorly worded, temporary criminal statute proscribing assisted suicide intended to "stop Kevorkian. Kevorkian openly defied the law and was arrested, tried, and acquitted.
The temporary prohibition lapsed but the prosecution's earlier appeal succeeded when the Michigan Supreme Court ruled that assisted suicide was a common law felony in Michigan People of Michigan v. Kevorkian was again arrested and tried. Once again, a jury found Against Euthanasia Debate Essay not guilty. A click case against Kevorkian was later declared a mistrial because of the courtroom conduct of Kevorkian's lawyer, and the case was dropped.
Kevorkian, it seemed, had a free hand. InKevorkian's actions grew increasingly erratic. In June, after he assisted the suicide of Joseph Tushkowski, a man with quadriplegia, Kevorkian held a press conference in which he claimed to have procured the man's kidneys, and offered them for organ transplant, "first come, first served. Kevorkian then took the tape to CBSTelevision's news program 60 Minutes Against Euthanasia Debate Essay, which aired it to a nationwide audience, during which Kevorkian dared the authorities to source him.
Kevorkian was arrested and convicted of second-degree murder. He is currently in prison for a term of ten to twenty-five years. Proponents of legalization mounted a significant effort to have laws against assisted suicide declared unconstitutional, hoping to garner an "assisted suicide" Roe v.
In the closely associated case of Vacco v. They argued that since it is legal for terminally ill persons to refuse life-sustaining medical treatment and die immediately but illegal for terminally ill people who do not require life support to secure immediate death through physician-assisted suicide, New York violated its constitutional obligation to treat similarly situated people equally.
In rejecting the argument, the Supreme Court ruled that the New York law actually treated similarly Against Euthanasia Debate Essay people alike: The Court also ruled that there was a significant and rational distinction between refusing article source treatment and seeking assisted suicide.
In the former circumstance, the doctor's intention may be to simply stop performing useless procedures when a patient will not benefit, while in assisted suicide, the doctor must without a doubt intend for the patient's death. Both sides claimed victory in the Court's two rulings. Opponents were relieved that assisted suicide would not be "imposed" nationally by judicial fiat.
Voluntary euthanasia is conducted with the consent of the patient. Active voluntary euthanasia is legal in Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. Title Length Color Rating: The Case for Euthanasia - In order to provide a framework for my thesis statement on the morality of euthanasia, it is first necessary to. m i d d l e e a s t j o u r n a l o f n u r s i n gmiddle east journal of nursing july , volume 6 issue 4 • j u l y 2 0 0 9 31 middle east journal of nursing. Looking for effective and simple topics for your argumentative essay? Have no clue how to find an interesting idea to write about? Check out the extensive list of. In Switzerland, a total of assisted suicides ( men, women) was recorded for , compared to 1, non-assisted suicides ( men, women); most of the.
Proponents took heart that several concurring opinions muddied the waters and seemed to indicate that the issue could be brought back to the courts for further review if a case of a patient with truly irremediable suffering were presented. Proponents also claimed that the Court's decision freed the states to experiment with laws concerning the end of life, perhaps including assisted suicide, although opponents pointed out that the issue of a state's right to Against Euthanasia Debate Essay a law legalizing assisted suicide had not been before the Court.
There have been at least three attempts to invalidate state laws proscribing assisted suicide based on privacy provisions contained in state constitutions. A lawsuit challenging Alaska 's proscription is currently pending in that state's courts Sampson v.
State of Alaska, No. A California Court of Appeals decision refused to permit a terminally ill man to have legal assistance with suicide so that his body could be cryogenically preserved. The most notable case to decide this issue in state courts was Krischer v.